Kernowek Lulyn

Loving Living Cornish - A site dedicated to beginners learning the Cornish language

Gans govenek te dhe gara gàn gwiasva


This site is designed to assist people in the first few years of learning the Cornish Language (Kernowek) and is based on Kernowek Standard with spellings designed to aid pronunciation.  It is not promoted to be the definitive of the language  but is only intended to help early learners in KS and hopefully provide some links to learn more about the history of Cornwall and its people.

The site is intended to assist those learning under the structure of the Language Ladder at a "Breakthrough Level" based currently on the three stages included in Skeul an Tavas.

As with other languages there is always room for differences in interpretation and use, therefore there is likely to be elements within the site that some will question or disagree with but it should be remembered the site is here only to assist, and encourage people to learn the Cornish Language, and should not be used as the only point of referral or knowledge.

Oll an gwella

About:   Kernowek Standard
Kernowek Standard has been revised throughout on the basis of the "Standard Written Form (with reference also to Revived Middle Cornish & Revived Late Cornish dialects)" and is close to its orthography except for small changes in spelling. KS also uses diacritical marks to aid pronunciation. Agan Tavas has worked with Evertype to produce "Skeul an Tavas"  in Kernowek Standard and Standard Written Form for those who wish to use it in Cornish classes.

Skeul an Tavas now has it's own web site which can be found here ​​​​ Well worth a visit for more information and help

Please read the Literary Policy for this site (contained in Web Site Policies section) before submitting any work for inclusion on the site


  • Helston, Cornwall, United Kingdom

Nowyth i’n mis-ma / New this month

Nowyth i’n mis-ma / New this month:


Secùnd radn "An Prysner in Castel Zenda" gans gerva / The second chapter of "The Prisoner of Castle Zenda" with vocabulary

Link to Corona virus vocabulary / Kevren dhe " Gerva an Cùrunvîrùs "

Kernowek Qwyck (pdf): an cors tâstya-ma re beu istynys bys in 15 lesson / Kernowek Qwyck (pdf): this taster course has now been extended to 15 lessons

Kevren dhe Qwyz lies-dȇwys / Link to multi-choice Quiz

Kevren dhe Skeul An Tavas crowseryow / Link to Skeul An Tavas crosswords

Audio; Kevren dhe "Audio" in gwiasva "Skeul an Tavas" / Link to "Audio" in "Skeul an Tavas" website; to hear some spoken Cornish

Cotha taclow:

Kevren dhe "An Nawnjek Stap warn ugans"/ Link to "The Thirty-nine Steps"

Kevren dhe / Link to "An Canker neb a wrug Gwary gans an Mor"

Skeul an Tavas Web Site link :

Kevren dhe / Link to "skeul an tavas" spell checker added in "Useful Links"

Scrif Gwredhek

We would like to encourage original writing in Cornish by uploading suitable work to this website. Email Submissions should be written in Standard Cornish (KS), in any register of poetry or prose. We ask readers to bear in mind there may be different opinions about the best vocabulary and grammar in Revived Cornish. This website is not a place for discussion of literary work. That should be conducted directly with the author, or in an appropriate on-line forum. 

Whensys on ny dhe genertha lien nowyth in Kernowek, owth ugh-garga gweyth gwyw dhe’n wiasva-ma. Gwrewgh ebostya ober screfys in Kernowek Standard (KS), bardhonieth pò yêth plain, pynag a vo hy rejyster, dhe Res yw dhe genyver redyor remembra dell yll breusyow bos dyvers tùchyng an gwelha gerva ha gramer in Kernowek Dasvewys. An wiasva-ma nyns yw plâss may hyller dadhla wàr weyth lienak. Hòn yw dhe wil orth an auctour yn tydro, pò in neb forùm ewn wàr lînen.

If contributing, please confirm your authority to publish your work and name as contributor online


Past Events

Title Date Location
Skians 2020 02 Oct 2020 Online Event
Pennseythen Gernewek 2020 03 Apr 2020 St Austell College, Trevarthian Road, Saint Austell, UK
Yeth an Werin in Camborne 14 Mar 2020 Lowenack hotel
Yeth an Werin 25 Feb 2020 Bridge Inn,Bridge Hill, Bridge, Redruth TR16 4QW
Dydh Tregedna 22 Feb 2020 The Old School Centre Nance Lane Illogan Redruth TR16 4BB
Yeth an Werin 08 Feb 2020 Lowenack Hotel 34 Basset Rd, Camborne TR14 8SL, UK
Yeth An Werin 29 Jan 2020 Bridge Inn,Bridge Hill, Bridge, Redruth TR16 4QW
Yeth an Werin yn Cambron 11 Jan 2020 Lowenac Hotel Camborne
Yeth an Werin 31 Dec 2019 Tavern Pons Resulyan ogas dhe Redrudh (Bridge Inn)
Yeth an Weryn 14 Dec 2019 The Lowenac Hotel, Camborne
Nadelik Lyskerrys 30 Nov 2019 Liskeard, UK
Kylgh 'learners' Yeth' 22 Nov 2019 Murdoch House, Cross Street, Redruth

Literature available in Standard Cornish

Literature available from Agan Tavas: 

An Prysner in Castel Zenda


Anthony Hope

Kernowek gans Ian Jackson

E-dhyllys gans

Y fëdh An Prysner in Castel Zenda ow carya an redyor dhe Rùrytânya, pow a henwhedhel in perveth Ewrop coth. Res yw dh’agan gorour Rudolf Rassendyll dos ha gweres Mytern an wlas vian-ma, ha hebma in studh a beryl brâs. A yll Rassendyll lettya hager-dhevîs Dûk Michael, hanter-broder dhe’n Mytern? A yll diank orth cas Rupert a Hentzau ha’y dhrog-golytys? A yll dry oll an aventuryans dhe dhyweth fusyk, heb terry colon an Brynces Flavia, ha’y golon y honen kekefrës?

Anthony Hope a wrug screfa an aneth-ma in 1894. Rùrytânya ha’y manylyon lywus a gibyas fancy an bobel desempys yn tobm. Yma an trailyans gans Ian Jackson ow cachya froth ha frobmans romantek an mamlyver.

Kensa dyllans / First published 1894

Mamdytel / Original title The Prisoner of Zenda

Trailyans / Translation © 2020 Ian Jackson

Pùb gwir gwethys. Nyns yw an pùblycacyon-ma dhe redya marnas wàr wiasva – ny yll radn vëth anodho naneyl bos copies, sensys aberth in ken system dascafos na treuscorrys in form vëth oll na dre vain vëth oll, poken electronek, jynweythek, dre fotocopians, dre recordyth bò fordh vëth aral, heb recêva cubmyas dhyrag dorn dhyworth an trailyor.

All rights reserved. This publication is exclusively for reading on the website – no part of it may be reproduced, stored in another retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise whatsoever, without prior permission of the translator.

E-dhyllys gans / E-published by

(Viv Taskis)

Ranjy A, 37 Bre an Eglos / Flat A, 37 Church Hill

Hellÿs / Helston

Kernow / Cornwall

TR13 8TL

Lymnans / Illustration

Nigel Roberts


A note on the Cornish in this book

The Cornish of this translation takes William Jordan’s Gwrians an Bÿs as its ‘foundation text’, while looking forward to John Keigwin, William Rowe and Nicholas Boson, and back to John Tregear, Sacrament an Alter, Bêwnans Ke, and Bêwnans Meriasek. Spellings are those of Standard Cornish (‘Kernowek Standard’ or ‘KS’). This particular orthography was developed under the leadership of Michael Everson in close cooperation with Professor Nicholas Williams. It aims for spellings that are as unambiguous as possible in their representation of the sounds of Cornish, and which at the same time remain faithful to the forms we encounter in the traditional Cornish texts – since these are our chief source for the language. The whole corpus of traditional Cornish has been used to enlarge the vocabulary. This has been a necessary principle of the revival from the outset.

There is a Glossary at the end of the book.

I am indebted to Ray Chubb, who kindly read a draft of the whole translation and saved me from many infelicitous expressions.


A note on proper names

Anthony Hope’s Ruritania becomes Rùrytânya in Cornish, but otherwise names of people and places specific to the story have not been respelled. All the Ruritanian characters have German or Slavic names, so Michael, for example, sounds very much like Cornish Myhal, and you will be close enough if you pronounce Flavia as ‘Flâvya’, not with the vowel heard in the first syllable of English ‘flavour’. Strelsau too is a German name, at least in form. Say it as ‘Shtrelzaw’. But Zenda is probably meant to be purely Slavic, so its z is pronounced as in Cornish zyp (not ‘ts’).


Mis Gwydngala 2020

Chaptra 1

An Rassendylls – ha nebes geryow tùchyng teylu Elphberg

Chaptra 2

Adro dhe’n colour a vlew eus dhe dus

Mis Hedra 2020

Chaptra 3

Gordhuwher mery gans goos pell

Chaptra 4

An Mytern ow sensy appoyntyans

Mis Du 2020

Chaptra 5

Aventurs dhe actour gorthro

Chaptra 6

Kevrîn in certan selder

Mis Kevardhu 2020

Chaptra 7

Y Vrâster ow cùsca in Strelsau

Chaptra 8

Kenytherow a’n tecka ha broder tewl

Mis Genver 2021

Chaptra 9

Tâbel tê ha porpos nowyth dhe hedna

Chaptra 10

Chauns brav dhe dhen bylen

Mis Whevrel 2021

Chaptra 11

Helghya torgh coos ha brâs dres ehen

Chaptra 12

Recêva vysytyor ha boosa hig

Mis Merth 2021

Chaptra 13

Skeul Jacob amendys

Chaptra 14

Udn nos orth an Castel wàr ves

Mis Ebrel 2021

Chaptra 15

My ow côwsel orth temptyor

Chaptra 16

Towlen othobmak

Mis Mê 2021

Chaptra 17

Dydhanans hanter-nos gans Rupert yonk

Chaptra 18    Ajy dhe’n grocken dre nell

Mis Efen 2021

Chaptra 19

Fâss orth fâss i’n forest

Chaptra 20

An prysner ha’n Mytern

Mis Gortheren 2021

Chaptra 21

Mara pe kerensa oll an dra

Chaptra 22

Termyn present, passys – ha dhe dhos?



“Prest yma qwestyon gena vy, Rudolf, pana dermyn vynta in oll an bÿs obery neppyth?” yn medh gwreg ow broder.

 “A Rose wheg,” my a worthebys, ow corra an lo oy wàr an plât. “In oll an bÿs, prag y tal dhybmo obery neppyth? Ow studh yw attês. Namnag eus pegans dhybm lowr dhe’m whans (nefra nyns eus pegans lowr qwyt dhe nagonen, dell wosta), benegys ov vy a sensy worshyp meur dh’y yêwny: broder ov vy dhe’n Arlùth Burlesdon, ha broder dâ dh’y gontes, an arlodhes mar worhanus. Mir, th’oma pës dâ!”

“Te yw naw bloodh warn ugans,” hy a nôtyas. “Ha ny wrusta obery tra vëth ma’s –”

“Ma’s gwary alês? Gwir yw hedna. Nyns eus otham dh’agan teylu obery taclow.”

Tabm vexys o Rose dre an ger-ma, rag pùbonen a wor (mencyon a’n feth, ytho, ny yll bos myshyf) nag eus teylu dhedhy a’n keth gre exaltys dell yw an Rassendylls, teg ha codnek kynth yw hy honen. Kefrës ha’y theythy dynyak, perhenes o hy a fortyn brâs, hag ow broder Robert o fur lowr, ma na vo hy lynaja bern ganso. Lynyaj yw, in gwrioneth, testen may lavaras Rose nampyth ewn in y gever in hy nessa geryow.

“An teylu dâ yw lacka, dre vrâs, ès oll an re erel,” yn medh.

I’n very prës-na me a wrug palva ow blew. Godhvedhys veu hy mênyng pòr gler.

“Fest lowen ov vy dell yw Robert du y vlew!” hy a grias.

I’n keth tecken Robert a dheuth ajy, rag y fëdh ev ow tyfuna wor’seyth eur dell yw ûsys, hag ow qwil whel kyns haunsel. Ev a dowlas golok wàr y wreg: hy bogh o tùch entanys. Ev a’n tavas in udn jersya.

“Pandr’yw an mater, a whegen?” ev a wovydnas.

“Yth esa hy ow tavasa warbydn ow fowt obery ha’m perhenogeth a vlew rudh,” yn medhaf, in ton a bystyk.

“Ho! Sur nyns yw ev dhe vlâmya a’y vlew,” Rose a wrug amyttya.

“Ûsys dhe dhos dhe wel, unweyth pùb kenedhel, ’ma an blew-na,” yn medh ow broder. “An dhewfrik kefrës. Rudolf a’n jeves aga dew.”

“Dos dhe wel, ass yw edrek genama,” yn medh Rose, entanys whath.

“Gena vy th’yw an blew dâ lowr,” yn medhaf, ha my a savas in bàn hag omblegya tro ha’n portreyans a’n Gontes Amelia.

Gwreg ow broder a levas garm heb perthyans.

“Ass yw edrek, na gemerta an pyctour-na in kerdh, Robert,” yn medh hy.

“Ogh, a whegen!” ev a grias.

“Re Varia!” me a geworras.

“Dhana nakevys via, martesen,” hy a dhuryas.

“Scantlowr – ha Rudolf in agan mesk,” yn medh Robert, ow shakya pedn.

“Bos nakevys, prag y coodh?” my a wovydnas.

“Agh Rudolf!” gwreg ow broder a grias in mes, ha rudhya pòr dhainty.

My a wrug wherthyn, ha pêsya debry an oy. Me a worras adenewen, dhe’n lyha, an qwestyon pana res o dhybm obery neppyth (ha py neppyth). Ha, rag gorfedna an dhadhel – ha rag serry tebmyk dhe voy, res alowa, ow whor vy dre laha, mar vian ha sevur – my a wrug merkya:

“Dâ glân yw genama bos onen a deylu Elphberg.”

Pàn viv ow redya whedhel, pùpprës y fydnaf vy dreslebmel oll an text styrya. Saw pàn dheffa porpos dhybm a screfa whedhel, desempys yma otham owth inia warna vy styryans. Dell yw ôpynwelys, res yw dhybm clerhe prag y feu ow whor dre laha vexys a’m dewfrik ha’m blew, ha prag y whrug vy lavasos lavar, my dhe vos onen a deylu Elphberg. Rag kynth eus bry brâs, res desta, dhe’n Rassendylls, nans yw lies kenedhel, bytegyns nyns yw kevradna in aga goos jùstyfians vëth, orth kensa golok, a vôstya dell en vy jùnys dhe’n lynaja moy bryntyn a’n teylu Elphberg, na jùstyfians naneyl a bottya qwarel dell esa dhybm eseleth i’n Teylu Rial-na. Pana berthynas a yll bos inter Rùrytânya ha Burlesdon? Inter an Palys in Strelsau pò an Castel in Zenda, ha Nyver 305 Park Lane, Loundres West?

Now – ha res yw dhybm leverel orth an dallath, y fedha’vy ow tysencledhyas, heb goheles, an very bysmêr yw res ankevy, dell dyb an Arlodhes Burlesdon wheg – i’n vledhen 1733, ha’n Secùnd Jory a’y eseth wàr an se rial, ha’n cres i’n termyn-na ow rainya, ha’n mytern ha Pensevyk Kembra heb bos an eyl warbydn y gela na whath, y teuth certan pryns ow vysytya Lÿs an Sowson, neb o henwys in istory a’y wosa an Tressa Rudolf a Rùrytânya. An pryns o pollat yonk ha sêmly, uhel y bedn, merkys (namys martesen, ny dhegoth dhybm brusy) dre dhewfrik strait, lybm, hir tabm dres ehen, ha bùsh a vlew rudh tewl – an keth frigow-na ha’n keth blew, in gwrioneth, re wrug stampya an teylu Elphberg nans yw termyn pelha ès cov. Th’esa va tregys in Englond lower mis, hag ev a veu recêvys i’n pow-ma gans an moyha cortesy. Bytegyns ev a dhepartyas, wàr an dyweth, in dyfyk a gomendyans. Rag y feu va in omlath dewdhen (ha pùbonen owth omsensy bos y woos a’n uhella, hag ev ow casa hepcor kenyver qwestyon a’y dhynyta) gans neb nôbyl, aswonys dâ in Cowethas an jëdh, rag y boyntys y honen a veryt, ha kefrës avell den teg dhe wreg. I’n omlath Pryns Rudolf a gemeras goly garow, Ha sawyes anodho, y feu remôvys in dadn gel dre sleyneth an lÿscadnas Rùrytânyan, hag ev ow cafos plenta trobel. Ny veu an nôbyl golies i’n omlath, mès yêyn o an myttyn, ha glëb, pàn wrussons y omvetya, ha’n nôbyl a godhas in hager-anwos. Hag abàn na sowenys ow fetha y gleves, y feu marow whegh mis, ader dro, wosa dybarth Pryns Rudolf, heb spâss rag amendya y gescowethyans gans y wreg – ha hodna, warlergh dew mis moy, ow tenethy flogh in er dhe dîtel ha stâtys an teylu Burlesdon. An arlodhes-ma o an Gontes Amelia, mayth esa ow whor dre laha ow yêwny remôcyon a’y fyctour in mes a’n parleth in Park Lane. Ha gour dhedhy y feu Jamys, pympes Yùrl Burlesdon ha Baron Rassendyll an secùnd warn ugans, pùbonen a’n dhew in nôbylta an Sowson, ha Marhak in Ordyr an Garget. Ha Rudolf, y whrug ev dewheles dhe Rùrytânya, demedhy gwreg, hag eskyna wàr an se rial, le may feu y flehes esedhys in lynaja ewn, alena bys i’n very eur-ma – saw spis cot yn unsel. Ha wortyweth, mar mydnowgh kerdhes dre soleryow an pyctours in Burlesdon, in mesk an hanter-cans portreyans a’n dewetha deg bledhen ha seyth ugans, why a wra cafos pymp pò whegh, hag intredhans an pyctour a’n wheffes yùrl, oll dyblans der aga dewfrik strait, lybm, hir. Ha kefrës dre showr a vlew rudh flàm. Dhe’n re-ma, pymp pò whegh, yma lagasow glas inwedh, kynth eus lagasow tewl inter an Rassendylls moy menowgh.

Wèl ot an styryans. Ha my lowen y vos dewedhys. Namow wàr lynaja wordhy yw testen fest tyckly. Ha’n nôcyon erytuster eson ny ow clôwes kebmys anodho hedhyw i’n jëdh yw, dowt vëth, tavasak a’n lacka kynda oll. Ow mockya dothter yma va, hag ow screfa manylyon astranj in Lyver an Nôbylta inter an lînednow.

Êsy yw merkya tell usy ow whor dre laha – ha fowt gensy a lojyk, fowt personek dhedhy hy honen heb mar (rag nag eus lecyans na felha a gùhudha hy reydh) – usy hy ow consydra ow fysmens kepar hag offens ogatty ha my dhe vlâmya ragthans, hag ow tesevos, wàr hast, warlergh an sînys-ma avês, teythy aberveth mayth ov vy hepthans kettep huny. Ha hy a genertha hy inferyans anjùst dre boyntya orth dyfyk a brow i’m bôwnans vy bys i’n eur-ma. Wèl, re bo hedna dell yll, my a wrug kemeres shara dâ a blesour solabrës, ha shara dâ a wodhvos skentyl. My a veu kyns in scol Alman hag in ûnyversyta Alman, hag yth esen vy ow côwsel Almaynek mar berfeth avell Sowsnek iredy. Nyns esen vy estren vëth in Frynkek. Y’m bo nebes geryow Italek, ha Spaynek lowr kefrës dhe gùssya ino. My o, dhe’m breus, cledhevyas crev, mès heb sleyneth meur. Ha sethor dâ gans godn. My a wodhya marhogeth pùb best mayth yw y geyn dhe sedha warnodho. Ha’m pedn ow mos wàr y gàm kebmys dell yw possybyl, in despît y worher tanek. Mar mydnowgh leverel y talvia dhybm ry ow dedhyow dhe ober vas, nyns eus ger vëth dhe’m dyffres, marnas hebma: na godhvia dhe’m kerens kemyna dhybm ertons a dhyw vil bens an vledhen ha nas stubmys dhe wandra.

“An poynt a dhyffrans intra jy ha Robert,” yn medh ow whor dre laha, ha hy (bednath warnedhy!) ow côwsel yn fenowgh wàr arethva a’n wlasegeth ha, menowghter moy vëth, wàr arethva hy desmygyans, “an poynt a dhyffrans yw, y vos ev owth aswon an dûtys usy ow sordya a’y savla i’n Gowethas, ha dha vos jy owth aspia a’th savla chauncys dhe sêsya.”

“Dhe dhen uhel y golon, a Rose wheg,” my a worthebys, “sêsya chauncys yw dûta.”

“Flows!” yn medh, ow shakya hy fedn yn fen. Ha wosa tecken hy a bêsyas: “Now, otta Syr Jacob Borrodaile ow profya dhys soodh par hap a’th vusur jy poran.”

“Gromercy milweyth!” yn medhaf, in udn hanaja.

“Canaseth a’n jevyth warlergh whegh mis. Yma Robert ow leverel gans certuster y vos parys dhe’th recêva avell onen a’y sodhogyon. Gwra acceptya, Rudolf – rag plegya dhe vy.”

Now, bÿth pàn wrella ow whor dre laha gorra an mater in geryow a’n par-ma, ow crihy hy thâl teg, hag ow plethy hy dêwla bian, hirethek hy lagasow, oll a’m govys vy, loselwas kyn fe, ha hy heb omgemeryans naturek in ow hever, y’m beus edrega. Ha pelha, th’esen vy ow predery tell yllyn vy, dowt vëth, spêna termyn i’n soodh brofys-na ha cafos moy ès spot a solas. Ytho me a lavaras:

“A whor wheg, wosa whegh mis mar nyns eus lestans nag yw gwaitys, ha Syr Jacob orth ow gelwel, dhe’m cregy! my a vydn mos gans Syr Jacob defry!”

“Ogh, Rudolf, ass osta cuv! Pòr lowen ov vy!”

“Ple fëdh ow mos?”

“Ny wor whath. Certan y fëdh canaseth dâ.”

“A Vadâma,” yn medhaf, “kyn na vo ma’s Myssyon othobmak par hap, me a vydn mos rag kerensa jy. Pesqweyth may fo màl genama, ny vedham mygyl.”

Rÿs veu ow fromys ytho. Saw whegh mis yw whegh mis, owth hevelly trank heb worfen. Ha rag an mîsyow-ma dhe vos istynys inter my ha’m dywysygneth devedhek (me a vydn soposya sodhak canaseth dell yw den dywysyk, saw ny worama, rag na veuv vy sodhak canaseth bythqweth, na dhe Syr Jacob na dhe nagonen), my a wrug whythra orth maner garadow gasa an termyn dhe bassya. Ha desempys i’m pedn y teuth tybyans a vysytya Rùrytânya. Martesen yth hevel coynt, na wrug vy bythqweth vysytya an wlas-na kyns. Mès ow thas (in spit dh’y gerensa gudh wor’tu ha’n teylu Elphberg, neb a’n lêdyas dhe ry dhybm, y secùnd mab, an meur-hanow Rudolf), yth o prest sevys warbydn mos dy. Ha warlergh y vernans, ow broder, in dadn gùssul Rose, a wrug degemeres tradycyon an teylu, esa ow tesky goheles an wlas-na bytteth. Saw abàn dheuth Rùrytânya i’m pedn, y feuv vy consûmys gans ewl hy gweles dystowgh. Wosa pùptra, nyns yw blew rudh ha dewfrik hir dhe gafos only in Teylu Elphberg. Ha’n whedhel coth o skyla absùrd y dhylowrder, dhe’m breus, rag ow barya vy dhyworth aswon gwlascor a bris, ha meur hy bry, neb a wrug kemeres rol brâs in istory Ewrop kyns, ha parys dhe wil an keth hedna unweyth arta in danjer rêwlyas yonk ha freth, dell o an Mytern nowyth, herwyth pùb mencyon anodho. Sêlys veu ow determyans pàn wrug vy redya in The Times tell vedha an Pympes Rudolf cùrunys in Strelsau kyns pedn an nessa teyr seythen, ha tell vedha an ocasyon brâs-oberys in gwir. Mes a dorn my a vydnas bos ena, ytho dallath parusy. Saw dre rêson nag esa nefra dhybm ûsadow a brovia manylyon dhe’m kerens a’m viajys, ha my i’n câss-ma ow qwetyas gorthenep warbydn ow forpos, my a lavaras dell vydnen vy gwandra i’n Tyrol – o menowghva dhybm – ha my a wrug dyserry Rose dre dheclarya bos dhybm entent dhe studhya problemow gwlasek ha socyal an gemeneth, brâs hy les, usy tregys i’n côstys-na.

“Martesen,” me a hyntyas yn tewl, “y fëdh sewyans dhe’m viaj ena.”

“Pandra vynta leverel?” hy a wovydnas.

“Wèl,” yn medhaf, ha’m gis heb rach vëth, “y hyller lenwel, dell hevel,  aswy i’n lien der ober oll-compassus –”

“Ho! a wrêta screfa lyver?” hy a grias, ha tackya dêwla. “Hedna vëdh spladn, a ny vëdh, Robert?”

“Th’yw an gwelha comendyans i’n jëdh hedhyw dhe’n bôwnans gwlasek,” ow broder a wrug nôtya, hag ev y honen, dell y coodh godhvos, omgomendys i’n very maner-ma lower gweyth. Burlesdon Tùchyng Damcanep Goth ha Fethow Arnowyth hag An Sewyans Dewetha Oll, gans Studhyor Polytyk, an dhew ober-ma yw uhel in bry aswonys.

“An gwir yma dhis, ha my ow cresy, Bob was,” yn medhaf.

“Now gwra dedhewy, ty dh’y wil yn tefry,” yn medh Rose, sevur hy lev.

“Nâ, promys vëth ny rov vy. Saw me a vydn y wil mar teuv ha cafos devnyth lowr.”

“Hèn yw rêsonus,” yn medh Robert.

“Ogh, ny vern an devnyth!” yn medh hy, in udn settya hy gwessyow in pors.

Saw i’n tor’-ma ny ylly hy kemeres moy ès hanter-promys orta vy. In gwrioneth, y fensen vy gwystla sùbmen vrâs, na wrella story a’m viaj nama paper vëth nefra, na shyndya neb pluven. Hag yma hedna ow tysqwedhes fatell woryn ny bohes teg a vyns a vo i’n termyn a dheu. rag otta vy obma, ow collenwel ow hanter-promys, hag ow screfa lyver, dell na wrug vy desmygy bythqweth – kyn na wra servya scant in comendyans dhe’n bôwnans gwlasek, ha’y gontens heb tùchya màn an Tyrol.

Dowt a’m beus dell wrussa an lyver plêsya an Arlodhes Burlesdon naneyl, mar teffen ha’y bresentya dh’y golok hag arvrusyans – na’n stap-na, nyns eus mydnas vëth genef a’y wil.



Lavar meurgerys dhe’m Ôwnter William o, na godhvia dhe dhen vëth tremena dre Paris heb passya inhy udn jorna. Th’esa an ôwnter ow leverel warlergh prevyans a’n bÿs, ha me a wrug enora y gùssul der ôstya udn jëdh hag udn nos i’n ‘Continental’ wàr ow fordh dhe – dhe’n Tyrol. Me a vysytyas George Featherly i’n Canaseth, ha ny a gemeras tabm warbarth a gydnyow i’n boosty Durand, hag a’y wosa tastya an Gwary Kenys. Ha wosa hedna ny a dhebras nebes soper, ha wosa hedna vysytya Bertram Bertrand, gwersyor dâ y hanow ha kesscrefor in Paris rag The Critic. Y’n jeva set a rômys meur aga honfort, ha ny a gafas gwesyon blesont ow megy hag ow kestalkya. Apert o dhybm, bytegyns, Bertram y honen dhe vos dyglon, estregus y vrës, ha pàn veu pùbonen gyllys, marnas ny gàn honen, my a wrug y dhascùntell a’y vûtyans pell. Pols dâ ev a skyrmyas genef, ha wàr an dyweth ev a grias in mes, ow tôwlel y gorf dhe wely dëdh:

“Dâ lowr, ha ty owth erya. Th’esof ow cara – iffarnak cara!”

“Dhana prydydhieth a wrêta screfa dhe well,” yn medhaf avell ger confortya.

Ev a wrug crihy y vlew gans y dhorn ha megy yn fen. Yth esa George Featherly, a’y sav, an keyn trailys dhe’n glavel, ow minwherthyn heb cufter.

“Mars yw hy an garorieth coth,” yn medh, “ny dal ma’s hy dascor, Bert. An venyn a vydn qwyttya Paris avorow.”

“Me a’n gor,” yn medh Bertram, garow y lev.

“A pëdh hy ow cortos, dyffrans vëth,” a bêsyas George yn tybyta. “Ma hy neyjys uhella ès myster jornalyst, sos!”

“Dh’y cregy hy!” yn medh Bertram.

“A les dhybm via dhe voy,” me a wrug lavasos, “mar cothfen vy pyw esow’why ow côwsel in hy hever.”

“Antoinette Mauban,” yn medh George.

“De Mauban,” a groffolas Bertram.

“Ohô!” yn medhaf, ha sevel orth aswon dadhel an ragêr ‘de’. “A vynta leverel, Bert – ?”

“Dar, ny ylta gasa cres?”

“Pyma hy ow mos?” me a wovydnas, rag an dhama nyns o bian hy hanow.

George a wrug tynkyal an bathow in y bocket, minwherthyn yn cruel orth Bertram truan, ha gortheby yn plesont:

“Ny wor den vëth. Me a vetyas – ha ny ow côwsel, Bert – gans onen a’n vrâsyon in hy chy nans yw lower nos – wèl, nans yw ogas ha mis. A wrusta metya ganso nepprës – Dûk Strelsau?”

“G’rug,” Bert a groffolas.

“Den codnek dres ehen, dell dybys vy.”

Caletter vëth ny veu gweles tell o George porposys dre vencyon a’n dûk dhe encressya torment wàr Bertram truan, ytho my a vydna inferya re wrug an dûk aswon attendyans dhe Madame de Mauban. Hy o gwedhwes, rych, sêmly ha, dell levery whedhel, uhelwhansek. Th’o pòr wirhaval hy dhe vos, dell y’n gorras George in geryow, neyjys mar uhel avell ken onen, neb o person a’n moyha possybyl, heb perhedna gre rial i’n styr stroth. Rag yth o an dûk mab dhe Vytern Rùrytânya tremenys agensow, dre secùnd demedhyans a’n leuv gledh, ha hanter-broder dhe’n Mytern nowyth. Ev o mab moyha kerys y das, ha chêson a gabel pàn veuva gwrës dûk, ha’y dîtel kemerys dhyworth cyta, ha hodna an bencyta hy honen. Y vabm o dâ hy genesygeth, adar exaltys bytegyns.

“Dar, nyns usy ev in Paris i’n tor’-ma?” me a wovydnas.

“Ogh, nag usy! Ev êth in kerdh rag bos in cùrunyans an Mytern – solempnyta na wra ev enjoya scant, dr’yw dhe wetyas. Saw Bert, a bollat dâ, na goll govenek! Ny wra ev màn demedhy Antoinette maga teg – wèl, ny wra, marnas towlen aral a vëdh sprellys. Byttele, y fydn hy martesen – ” Ev a hockyas ha keworra, in udn wherthyn, “Cales yw sevel orth attendyans rial – ty a wor hedna, Rudolf, a ny wodhes?”

“Dhe’th confùndya!” yn medhaf, ha gorhebmyn farwèl, ha gasa Bertram anfusyk inter dêwla George, ha mos tre dhe’m gwely.

Ternos George Featherly a wrug dos gena vy dhe’n gorsaf, may prenys vy tôkyn dhe Dresden.

“Gwil tro rag gweles oryel an pyctours?” George a wovydnas, ha gwenwherthyn.

George yw whedhlor coth, ha mara mednen derivas dhodho dell esen vy ow viajya bys in Rùrytânya, y fia an nowodhow devedhys in Loundres wosa treddeth, hag in Park Lane kyns pedn seythen. Ytho my a vydna ry gorthyp gohelus pàn wrug ev selwel ow heskians vy ha’m forsâkya desempys, ow qwybya dres an cay. Pàn wrug vy holya gans dewlagas, me a welas bos ev ow terevel y hot ha salusy benyn jentyl, fascyonus hy gwysk, a veu apperys namnygen in mes a’n dôkynva. Hy o, leveryn ny, tùch moy ès deg bloodh warn ugans, hir hy horf, tewl, ha leun lowr hy fygùr. Pàn esa George ow côwsel, me a wrug gweles tell dowlas hy golok scav warna vy, ha’m gooth a veu hùrtys der an preder nag esa semlant dhybm a’n gwelha, ha my cudhys in dadn gôta pelour ha lien codna (rag an jëdh in Ebrel dhe vos yêyn) ha hot viajya, medhel ha tednys isel dhe’n scovornow. Wosa tecken, George a dheuth ha jùnya dhybm arta.

“Cowethes meur hy gorhan yma dhis i’n viaj,” yn medh. “Hòn yw an dhuwes usy Bert Bertrand truan ow cordhya dhedhy, Antoinette de Mauban; ha hy, kepar ha ty, ow mos dhe Dresden – heb dowt kefrës rag gweles oryel an pyctours. Pòr goynt yw, bytegyns, nag usy hy ow whelas an enor a’th aswon i’n present termyn.”

“Ny vydnen vy govyn comendyans dhedhy,” me a wrug merkya, nebes serrys.

“Wèl, me a brofyas dha dhry jy dhedhy. Mès hy a lavaras, ‘Prës aral.’ Ny vern, was, par hap y fëdh drog-labm hens horn, ha chauns dhyso a wil hy rescous ha defendya Dûk Strelsau dhe ves!”

Bytegyns ny veu drog-labm vëth, naneyl orta vy na worth Madame de Mauban. My’yll côwsel abarth dhedhy, ha’m omfydhyans kehaval dell eus a’m parth ow honen. Rag pàn esen vy, wosa nos a bowes in Dresden, ow pêsya an viaj, hy a wrug eskyna i’n keth train. Convedhys o genam y bosy heb whans a gompany, ytho me a vydna hy goheles gans rach. Saw my a wely hy bos ow viajya an keth train-ma gena vy bys in very pedn a’m fordh, ha me a wrug ûsya pùb spâss a veras war orty, bÿth pàn allen vy gwil, heb bos aspies.

Kettel wrussyn ny drehedhes or Rùrytânya (ha’n sodhak coth, neb o rowtor an Dollva, ow settya y dremyn warnaf mar stark, may feuv vy surra agès kyns a’m fysmens Elphberg), me a brenas an paperyow nowodhow, ha cafos derivadow inans tùchyng ow viaj. Heb styryans cler, tabm kevrînek kyn fe, y feu dëdh an cùrunyans avauncys neb rêson. Y fedha an solempnyta sensys trenja. Th’esa an hol bow ow frobma in y gever, ha Strelsau o, hebma apert, leun a rûth. Oll an rômys a veu gwerthys, ha’n ostelyow ow fedna. Pòr idn vedha ow chauns vy dhe gafos gwestva, ha sur y fedha res dhybm tylly pris uthyk brâs. Ervirys veuv vy dhe bowes in Zenda, tre vian, hanter-cans mildir dhyrag an bencyta, ha deg ader dro dhyworth an or. An train a dheuth dy gordhuwher, hag ow forpos o passya an nessa jorna, de Merth, in gwandrans dres an brynyow, meur aga brafter herwyth whedhel; kibya golok got a’n Castel brâs y hanow; kemeres an train dhe Strelsau de Merher myttyn; ha dewheles i’n nos rag cùsca in Zenda.

Ytho in Zenda me a skydnyas, ha pàn esa an train ow tremena an tyller mayth esen vy sevys wàr an cay, my’ylly aspia Madame de Mauban in hy eseth. Th’o cler tell esa hy ow viajya bys in Strelsau ha cafos set a rômys ena, gwell hy darbar ès ow ragwel vy. Minwherthyn me a wrug pàn y teuth dhe’m preder, assa via George Featherly sowthenys a cothfa my ha hy dhe vos kesviajyoryon mar bell.

Pòr guv veu ow recepcyon i’n ostel – in gwrioneth, scant nyns o moy ès gwesty – ha’n ôstes o benyn goth ha borr, ha dyw vyrgh gensy. Pobel gosel êns y, ha caradow, bian aga les, dell hevelly, in gwrÿth vrâs Strelsau. Gorour o an dûk dhe’n venyn goth, drefen ev dhe vos, warlergh lyther kemyn an Mytern tremenys, mêster a stâtys Zenda lebmyn hag a’n Castel, esa bryntyn y sav wàr an vre serth in pedn an valy, ogas hag udn vildir orth an gwesty. Ny hockyas an venyn goth ow teclarya, yn tefry, hy edrek nag esa an dûk esedhys wàr an se rial, in le y vroder.

“Aswonys dhe ny yw an Dûk Michael,” yn medh. “Ma va tregys i’gan mesk nanj yw oll y dhedhyow. An Dûk Michael yw aswonys dhe bùb Rùrytânyan. Mès estren namnag yw an Mytern. Kebmys in powyow erel th’esa ev, ha nynj eus ma’s onen in deg unweyth orth y aswon dre syght.”

“Hag i’n tor’-ma,” onen a’n benenes yonk a woderrys hy hows, “yma whedhel tell wrug ev dyvarva, ma nag eus den vëth oll orth y aswon.”

“Dyvarva!” hy mabm a grias. “Pyw eus ow leverel?”

“Johann, an gwethyas gam dhe’n dûk. Ev re welas an Mytern.”

“Eâ. ’Ma an Mytern, sera, in chy helghya an dûk, i’n forest obma, i’n very eur-ma. Ev a vydn mos ahanan dhe Strelsau rag bos cùrunys de Merher myttyn.”

Clôwes hedna a veu meur y les dhybm, ha my a wrug ervira kerdhes tro ha’n chy ternos, ha chauns a dhierbyna an Mytern. An venyn goth a bêsya hir hy thavas:

“Agh, ’pe unweyth ev dhe dhurya orth y helghyans – hedna, ha’y win (hag udn dra kefrës), nynj yw ma’s an re-ma y gerensa, dell laver scavel an gow – ’pe unweyth gasa agan dûk dhe vos cùrunys de Merher. Ot ow whans vy, ha ny vern pyw a wor.”

“Whyst, mabm!” an myrhas a lavaras, meur aga iny.

“Ogh, ’ma lies huny ow tyby an keth hedna!” an venyn goth a grias, cales hy fedn.

Me a’m towlas i’m chair brehek down wàr dhelergh, ha wherthyn orth hy dywysycter.

“Dhe’m part vy,” yn medh an yonca ha tecka a’n dhyw vyrgh, moren blegadow, sêmly hy minwharth, ‘Cas yw Michael Du genam! Elphberg rudh yw whans avy, a vabm! An Mytern yw, pùb huny der dherif, mar rudh avell lowarn pò vell –”

Ha hy a wharthas dregynus, ow tôwlel golok warna vy, ha shakya hy fedn orth hy whor, warbydn hy fâss a rebukyans.

“Lies den re wrug molethy y vlew rudh kyns hedhyw,” an venyn goth a groffolas – ha my ow perthy cov a Jamys, pympes Yùrl Burlesdon.

“Saw ny wrug benyn bythqweth!” a grias an vowes.

“Benenes, y whrussons y kekefrës, pàn veu re holergh,” an gorthyp a dheuth sevur, ha’n vowes a godhas in meth ha taw.

“Prag yma an Mytern i’n vro?” me a wovydnas, rag terry an taw tyckly.

“An dûk yw perhen a’n tir obma, dell leveryth.”

“Y feuva gelwys gans an dûk, sera, rag gwil powes obma bys de Merher. ’Ma an dûk in Strelsau, ow tarbary recepcyon dhe’n Mytern.”

“Cothmans yns y dhana?”

“A’n gwelha,” yn medh an venyn goth.

Saw ow damsel roslyw a shakyas hy fedn unweyth arta. Ny yller hy frodna termyn pell, heb hy dhe derry arta in mes:

“Eâ, th’yw an eyl ow cara y gela, mar wyw dell yw dhe dus whensys dhe’n keth plâss ha dhe’n keth wreg!”

Th’esa an venyn goth ow meras serrys brâs orty. Saw an dewetha geryow a wrug piga ewl a wodhvos ina vy, ha my a’s contreweytyas kyns ès hy dhe dhos dhe davasans:

“Pywa! An keth wreg dh’aga dew! Fatl’yw, a venenyk?”

“Gans oll an bÿs ’ma godhvedhys ter via Michael Du – wèl sur, a vabm, an dûk – ow ry y ena ev rag demedhy y genytherow, Prynces Flavia, ha ter vëdh hyhy an vyternes.”

“Re’m fay,” yn medhaf, “ha my ow kemeres trueth a’gas dûk lebmyn. Saw neb den mar pëdh yonca mab, now, res yw recêva an pëth a vo gesys dhodho gans an mab cotha, hag aswon grâss dhe Dhuw, kebmys dell alla va.” Ha my a wrug derevel an scodhow, ow predery ahanaf ow honen, hag ow wherthyn. Nena my a wrug predery Antoinette de Mauban inwedh, ha’y viaj dhe Strelsau.

“Bohes yw dyghtyans Michael Du gèn –” a dhalathas an vowes, in spit dhe sorr hy mabm. Mès pàn esa hy whath in cows, y teuth stap poos ha seny wàr an leur, ha voys grolyak a wovydnas in ton a wodros:

“Pyw eus ow clattra a ‘Michael Du’ in tre y Uhelder y honen?”

An vowes a levas scrij bian, hanter rag own – hanter, dell gresama, dydhenys.

“Ny wrêta derivas er ow fydn, Johann?” yn medh hy.

“Dar, ny welta pleth ujy dha glap ow lêdya?” yn medh an venyn goth.

An den hag a wrug côwsel, ev a worras y honen in rag.

“Ma company dhe ny, Johann,” yn medh ow ôstes, ha’n pollat a wrug sqwychya y hot dhe ves. Wàr nùk ev a’m aspias, ha plynchya stap wàr dhelergh, er am marth, kepar ha pàn wrella gweles tra varthusek.

“Pëth yw dha drobel, Johann?” an cotha mowes a wovydnas. “Hèm yw estren jentyl wàr viaj, devedhys rag gweles an cùrunyans.”

An den a dhaskemeras y honen, saw th’esa ow meras stag orta vy ha’y wolok o crev, whythrus, fers ogatty.

“Gordhuwher dâ dhys,” yn medhaf.

“Gordhuwher dâ, sera,” ev a groffolas, ha whythra orta vy whath, ha’n vowes hudhyk a dhalathas wherthyn, ow cria in mes –

“Mir, Johann, th’yw an colour kerys gena jy! Plynchys veuva pàn wrug aspia gàs blew, sera. Aga holour scant nynj yw gwelys in Zenda yn fenowgh.”

“Gyvyans a besaf, sera,” yn medh an pollat in udn hockya, penpleth in y lagasow. “Den vëth, nynj o dhe wetyas.”

“Roy gwedren dhodho, may halla eva ow yêhes vy. Ha me a vydn gorhebmyn nos dâ dhe why, ha dùrdala dhe why, a venenes wheg, a’gas cortesy ha’gas kescows plesont.”

Gans an geryow-ma my a savas in bàn, ha wosa plegyans scav omdrailya dhe’n daras. Th’esa an vowes yonk ow ponya rag golowy ow fordh, ha’n den ow kildedna rag gasa tremen dhybm, ha’y lagasow stegys warna vy hogen. I’n very prës pàn wrug vy passya, ev a gemeras stap wàr rag, ha govyn:

“Y praya, sera, yw an Mytern aswonys dhis?”

“Bythqweth ny’n gwelys,” yn medhaf. “Yma govenek dhybm a’y weles de Merher.”

Ny lavaras ev namoy, saw th’esen vy owth omglôwes fatell holya y wolok wàr ow lergh, bys may feu an daras degës ha my dredho. Ow hùmbrynkyades taunt a wrug leverel, ow kerdhes dhyragof hag ow meras dres hy scoodh:

“Onen a’gas colour, sera, ny yll plêsya Mêster Johann.”

“Gwell yw ganso dha golour jy, martesen?” me a brofyas.

“Ow mênyng, sera, o colour in gour,” hy a worthebys, ha’y golok a dhynyores warnaf.

“Pywa?” a wovydnys, ow settya dalhen in tu aral an cantolbren. “Yw colour in gour tra meur y vern?”

“Nag yw, mès my a gar dha golour jy – rudh an teylu Elphberg yw.”

“Colour in gour,” yn medhaf, “nyns yw y valew moy ès hebma!” – ha my ow ry nampyth dhedhy heb valew vëth.

“Duw graunt daras an gegyn dhe vos degës!” yn medh.

“Âmen!” yn medhaf, ha dyberth dhyworty.

In gwrioneth, dell worama lebmyn, traweythyow th’yw colour a valew mynsek in gour.



Nyns en vy mar afrêsonus, mayth esen vy ow tysfavera gwethyas gam an dûk drefen nag esa ow fysmens dâ ganso; ha’pe dysfaverans defry, wèl y fara a wrug ow diarva vy, moyha cyvyl ha hegar (dell hevelly dhybm), ternos vyttyn. Pàn glôwas bos Strelsau pedn ow fordh vy, ev a dheuth ha metya genef, ha my orth haunsel, ha derivas fatell veuva gelwys gans y whor, neb o demedhys dhe vysterden rych lowr ha tregys i’n bedncyta, rag ocûpya chambour in hy chy. Ev a wrug acceptya yn lowen, saw lebmyn ev a wodhya convedhes na ylly forsâkya y dûtys. Ytho ev a besys orta vy a gemeres y le, mar calla an westva-ma contentya; uvel, mès, dell wrug ev keworra, glân ha leun a gonfort. Dedhewys o assentyans y whor, hag ev ow poosleva an dieth a via dhybm ha’n rûthow a wrussen vy dierbyn i’m viajys dhe ha dhia Strelsau avorow. Me a wrug acceptya y brofyans heb hockya, hag ev êth ha pellscrefa dh’y whor, ha my ow trùssa hag owth ombarusy rag mos i’n nessa train. Saw yth esen vy ow yêwny an forest ha’n chy helghya whath, ha pàn lavaras ow maghteth vian dell yllyn vy cafos an hens horn in gorsaf ryb an fordh, warlergh kerdhes deg mildir ogas lowr der an forest, me a vydnas danvon ow fardellow strait dhe’n drigva a ros Johann, gwil ow thro kerdhes, ha sewya dhe Strelsau a’y wosa. Gyllys o Johann dhe ves, ytho ny wodhya bos ow thowl chaunjys. Saw drefen nag esa effeth, ma’s strechya ow devedhyans dh’y whor nebes ourys, chêson ny welyn vy a dherivas dhodho. Heb dowt, ny vydna an venyn dhâ spêna fienasow a’m govys.

Me a dhebras ly avarr, ha wosa gorhebmyn farwèl dhe’m ôstys cuv, ha promyssya dewheles dhedhans wàr ow fordh tre, my a dhalathas ascendya an vre tro ha’n Castel hag alena wor’tu ha’n forest. Kerdhes hanter-our heb hast a’m dros dhe’n Castel. Th’o ker i’n dedhyow eus passys, ha’n pedndour auncyent in sawment dâ whath, ha brâs y argraf. Adrëv dhodho th’esa ken radn a’n castel gwredhek, hag adrëv hodna, dyberthys dre bollgledh down ha ledan oll adro dhe’n byldyansow coth, yth esa mansyon arnowyth ha sêmly, drehevys gans an dewetha mytern, hag ow servya i’n tor’-ma avell trigva diogus dhe Dûk Strelsau. An radnow coth ha nowyth o jùnyes dre bons derevel, ha marnas an entryng andydro-ma nyns esa tremenva vëth inter an byldyans coth ha’n bÿs wàr ves. Saw ow lêdya dhe’n mansyon arnowyth yth esa rôsva ledan ha sêmly. Aneth delvrysek o. Pàn esa Michael Du ow tesîrya company, y hylly trega in y vansyon. Mara pe sêsyes gans shôra cas warbydn mab den, nyns o res ma’s tremena dres an pons ha’y dherevel wàr y lergh (an gwayans o dre rolbrednyer), ha’y dhry in mes ny yll tra vëth viadnha ès rejyment ha godnys brâs in aray. My êth ow fordh in rag, lowen bos dhe Michael Du, kyn na ylly ev kemeres an se rial na’n brynces naneyl, trigva mar vrav dell esa dhe genyver pryns in Ewrop.

Me a wrug entra dhe’n forest wharê, ha kerdhes pelha, udn our pò moy, in dadn y skeus tewl ha goyeyn. An gwëdh brâs o plethys an eyl gans y gela a-ugh ow fedn, ha golowyjyon an howl ow qwybya der an to-ma in lagasow mar spladn avell adamans, ha scant nyns êns y brâssa. Gorhenys en vy gans an tyller, ha pàn gefys vy gwedhen-ven a’y wroweth, me a settyas ow heyn orto, hag istyn ow garrow, hag omry dhe gontemplans cosel a decter sad an coos ha dhe gonfort a cygar dâ. Ha pàn anellys vy dalgh a decter (dell soposys), ha’n cygar gorfednys, me a wrug codha in cùsk moyha delycyùs, heb predery a’m train dhe Strelsau hag a’n androw esa ow passya yn scon. Remembra train i’n plâss a’n par-na a via sacrylych gwyls. In y le, me a dhalathas hunrosa y bosama demedhys dhe Brynces Flavia ha tregys in Castel Zenda, hag ow corhana cowl-dhedhyow gans ow hares in lanerhy an forest – ha hunros o hedna pòr blesont. Ha pàn esen vy i’m desmygyans ow qwasca abm gwresak wàr wessyow wheg an brynces, me a wrug clôwes nebonen (ha’n voys o radn a’n hunros, dell hevelly wostallath) ow cria in mes, garow hag uhel y lev:

“Dar, usy an jowl i’n dra? Mar pe dyvarvys, an Mytern via ev!”

An tybyans o siansus teg i’m hunros. Dre offrydna ow minvlew poos ha’m barv ha’y bleyn imperyal, y fedhen vy transformys dhe vonark. Pàn vydnen vy abma dhe’n brynces unweyth arta, i’n very prës-na me a dheuth (meur ow anvoth) dhe’n ervirans y bosama dyfun.

Me a wrug egery ow lagasow, ha cafos dew dhen ow meras orta vy ha brâs aga whans a wodhvos. Dhe’n dhew th’esa dyllas sport godn i’ga herhyn, hag anjy ow ton godnys. Onen o nebes berr ha pòr vynsek y gorf, pedn brâs, bùlet y shâp, minvlew a reun loos, lagasow blou gwydnyk bian, ha tabm gwythiek. An aral o pollat yonk ha tanow, cresek y hirder, tewl y vejeth, gans stubm grassyùs a vryntynsys. Me a wrug desmygy an eyl dhe vos den jentyl ûsys dhe gowethas meur hy bry, hag experyens ganso in conversacyon a vresel inwedh; ha’y gela dhe vos soudor coth. Dell veu prevys a’y wosa, hèn o desmygyans lybm.

An cotha den a dheuth bys dhybm, in udn wil sin dhe’n aral may whrella holya. Dell wrug defry, ha derevel y hot yn cortes. Me a savas lent in bàn.

“Ev a’n jeves an hirder kefrës!” a glôwys vy an cotha dhe leva yn isel, hag ev ow whythra an whegh troos’hës ha dyw vêsva a hirder esa dhybmo. Ena ev a lavaras, ow tava y gappa i’n vaner a Varhak:

“Alla’vy govyn agas hanow?”

“Awos why dhe wil an kensa stap i’gan aswonvos, a dus jentyl,” yn medhaf gans minwharth, “res yw dhe why lêdya i’n negys a henwyn.”

An den yonk a dheuth udn pâss in rag, ha plesont y vinwharth.

“Hèm yw,” yn medh, “Coronal Sapt, ha my yw henwys Fritz von Tarlenheim. Yth eson agan dew in servys Mytern Rùrytânya.”

Me a omblegyas ha dyscudha ow fedn in udn wortheby:

“My yw Rudolf Rassendyll. Viajyor a Bow an Sowson ov vy; hag ow sensy comyssyon sodhak dhyworth hy Brâster an Vyternes nebes bledhydnyow alebma.”

“Dhana ny oll yw bredereth a’n cledha,” Tarlenheim a worthebys, hag istyn y dhorn, a wrug vy kemeres a’m bodh.

“Rassendyll, Rassendyll!” a hanajas Coronal Sapt. Ena y feu ùnderstondyng gwybys in golow scav dres y vejeth.

“Re Varia!” ev a grias, “ow’why onen a’n teylu Burlesdon?”

“Ow broder yw lebmyn an Arlùth Burlesdon,” yn medhaf.

“Lyw an pedn a’th tyskever,” ev a wharthas in y vriansen, ow poyntya dhe’m poll dyscudhys. “Dar, Fritz, ny wosta an whedhel?”

An den yonk a dowlas golok dyharas warna vy. Th’esa va owth aswon mater tyckly in fordh may fensa ow whor-dre-laha y estêmya meur. Rag ry dhe’n den diaha, me a wrug compla gans minwharth:

“Â! an whedhel yw godhvedhys obma maga tâ, dell hevel, hag i’gan mesk ny.”

“Godhvedhys!” Sapt a grias. “Mar mydnow’why remainya obma, na wra dyowl vëth y dhowtya in oll Rùrytânya – na dâma vëth naneyl.”

Me a dhalathas omsensy anês. A pe convedhys genama kyns, tell esen vy ow ton petygrew screfys warnama mar blain, me a vensa kemeres moy preder kyns ès vysytya Rùrytânya. Mès yth o re holergh.

I’n very prës-na y feu lev brâs y senyans clôwys dhyworth an coos adrëv dhe ny:

“Fritz, Fritz! pleth esta, gwas?”

Tarlenheim a blynchyas, ha leverel gans hast:

“An Mytern yw!”

Dhe Sapt coth yth esa wharth in y vriansen unweyth arta.

Ena den yonk a labmas dhia govva a wedhen-ven ha sevel rypthon. Pàn y’n aspias, my a wrug garm a varth. Hag y whrug ev kildedna rag sowthan sodyn pàn y’m gwelas vy. Saw blew ow fâss yn unsel, ha neb gis a dhynyta der entent a’y roweth ev; saw fowt dhodho kefrës a hanter-mêsva martesen a’m hirder vy – nâ, le ès hodna, mès tabm bytegyns – Mytern Rùrytânya a via Rudolf Rassendyll, ha my, Rudolf, a via Mytern Rùrytânya.

Pols yth en ny sevys heb gway vëth, an eyl ow meras orth y gela. Ena my a dednas ow hot unweyth arta hag omblegya gans revrons. An Mytern a wrug dascafos y lev, ha govyn in y sowthan:

“A goronal – Fritz – pyw yw an den jentyl-ma?”

Me a vydna knack gortheby, pàn wrug Coronal Sapt gorra y honen inter an Mytern ha my, ha dallath côwsel orth y Vrâster in croffal isel. Th’esa pedn an Mytern pell a-ugh pedn Sapt, ha’y lagasow lebmyn hag arta orth ow whelas vy, hedre ve ow coslowes. Ha my owth aspia worto ev, polta dour. An havalder o meur y varth, sur, kynth esa poyntys a dhyffrans dhe weles inwedh. Fâss an Mytern o nebes moy kigek ès ow bejeth vy, hirgelgh y lînen o tebmyk creffa ha, dhe’m desmygyans vy, nyns esa dh’y vin oll an ferfter (pò gorthter) o dhe redya wàr ow gwessyow tydn vy. Saw awos hedna, ha dres oll an dyffrans munys, yth esa an havalder ow sordya yn wondrys, marthys, moyha hewel.

Sapt a cessyas côwsel, ha’n Mytern ow plegya y dâl whath. Ena, tabm ha tabm, cornellow y vin a dhalathas sqwychya, y dhewfrik a wrug skydnya (dell wra ow dewfrik vy pàn esof ow wherthyn), y lagasow terlentry, hag awot y wharth a dardhas in shôra ancompressadow a’n moyha jolyf, esa ow seny der an coos ha’y dheclarya den mery.

“Metyans dâ, a genderow!” ev a grias, ha dos udn pâss wor’tu ha my, ha tackya dorn wàr ow heyn, ha wherthyn whath. “Gevowgh dhybm dre gortesy ha my sowthenys. Gweles dobyl i’n eur-ma a’n jëdh, nyns yw gwaitys nefra, eh, Fritz?”

“Me a bës pardon, a sera rial, a’m bolder,” yn medhaf. “Yma govenek dhybm na wrav vy kelly favour agas Brâster.”

“Re Varia! cowntnans dâ an Mytern a’gas bÿdh pùb termyn,” yn medh ev, in udn wherthyn, “boneyl a’m bodh bò heptho. Ha, sera, my a vydn keworra servyssyow yn lowen, pùppynag a allen vy. Pleth esow’why ow viajya?”

“Dhe Strelsau, a sera rial – dhe’n cùrunyans.”

An Mytern a wrug meras orth y gothmans, hag ev ow minwherthyn whath, kynth esa anetter hyntys in y dremyn. Saw tenewen jolyf an mater a’n cachyas arta.

“Fritz, Fritz!” ev a grias, “me a be mil gùrun rag aspia fâss Broder Michael pàn wrella gàn gweles doblys!” ha’n wharth mery ow seny unweyth arta.

“A furneth Mêster Rassendyll,” a wrug Fritz von Tarlenheim merkya, “dowtys ov yn frâs, mar mydn vysytya Strelsau i’n termyn-ma.”

An Mytern a dùchyas cygaryk.

“Wèl, Sapt?” yn medh, in udn wovyn.

“Res yw dhodho heb mos màn,” an cothwas a wrug gromyal.

“Now, a goronal, gwell via leverel my dhe vos in kendon dhe Vêster Rassendyll mar ny wra –”

“Ogh, eâ! gwra y vailya in maner ewn,” yn medh Sapt, in udn hâlya pib vrâs in mes a’y bocket.

“Lowr, a sera rial,” yn medhaf. “Me a vydn voydya a Rùrytânya hedhyw i’n very jëdh.”

“Na vynta, re’n ebron dhâ – hèn yw sans phrase, dell yw Sapt plêsys dhe leverel. Rag ty a vydn kynyewel gena vy haneth, pùppynag a wharvo a’y wosa. Deus, a dhensa, ny wrêta metya gans nes’hevyn nowyth pùb jorna!”

“Haneth y fedhyn ny ow kynyewel yn erbysek,” yn medh Fritz von Tarlenheim.

“Càm na vedhyn – pàn eson ny ow qwesty gàn kenderow nowyth ny!” a grias an Mytern. Ha pàn dherevys Fritz y scodhow, ev a geworras: “Ogh! ha my a vydn perthy cov a’gan dallath avorow avarr, Fritz.”

“My kefrës – pàn dheffa vorow,” yn medh Sapt coth, ow tedna mog der y bib.

“Ogh, Sapt coth ha fur!” an Mytern a grias. “Deus, Mêster Rassendyll – pana hanow a rosons y dhys, ha ny ow côwsel?”

“Hanow dha Vrâster y honen,” me a worthebys, in udn omblegya.

“Wèl, ma hedna ow prevy na wrussons y kemeres meth ahanan,” yn medh, in udn wherthyn. “Deus, dhana, kenderow Rudolf. Ny’m beus plâss ow honen obma, mès yma ow broder wheg Michael ow lendya chy dhyn, ha ny a vydn gwil oll gàn ehen dhe’th intertainya ino”. Ev a golmas y vregh dhe’m bregh vy ha’m hùmbrank der an forest in kerdh, gans sin orth an re erel dhe dhos genen, tro ha’n west.

Th’esen ny ow kerdhes moy ès hanter-our, ha’n Mytern ow megy cygarygow hag ow clappya heb hedhy. Les brâs a gemery adro dhe’m teylu, ha wherthyn a’y golon pàn wrug vy derivas a’n portreyansow i’gan soleryow, Elphberg aga blew, ha wherthyn a’y golon dhe voy pàn wrug ev clôwes bos ow thro plesour in Rùrytânya tra gevrîn.

“Yw res dhis vysytya dha genderow drog-gerys in dadn gel?” yn medh.

Desempys ny a wrug tremena mes a’n coos, devedhys dhe jy helghya, bian hag bohes afînys. Byldyans udn leur o va, sort a vùngalow, gwrës oll a bredn. Pàn esen ny ow nessa, y feu den cot apperys dh’agan metya, hag udnwysk sempel in y gerhyn. Ny welys ken onen ma’s benyn dew ha coth, neb o mabm Johann, an gwethyas gam dhe’n dûk, dell wrug vy dyskevera a’y wosa.

“Wèl, yw kydnyow parusys, Josef?” an Mytern a wovydnas.

Parusys in gwir, dell dherivas an servont bian, ha ny a’gan eseth dhyrag plenta vytel yn scon. An boos o sempel lowr: an Mytern ow tebry yn yagh, Fritz von Tarlenheim yn tainty, Sapt coth kepar ha bleydh. My a wrug gwary brav gans ow hollel ha’m forgh, dell o ûsys genama. An Mytern a verkyas ow ferformyans, ha gormola in y wolok.

“Th’on ny oll tus dhe dallyour dâ, ny teylu Elphberg,” yn medh. “Saw dar! – nyns eson ny ow tebry yn sëgh? Gwin, Josef! gwin, was! On ny bestas, ha ny ow tebry heb eva? On ny gwarthek, Josef?”

Sket orth repref-ma Josef a wrug beha an bord a votellow.

“Remember avorow!” yn medh Fritz.

“Eâ – pàn dheffa vorow!” yn medh Sapt coth.

An Mytern a wrug gwakhe gwedren leun abarth yêhes “Kenderow Rudolf,” dell vydna ev ow cria vy dre gortesy – pò dre jolyfter. Ha my a wrug eva eqwal abarth yêhes “Colour rudh Elphberg”, hag ev ow wherthyn yn uhel.

Now, pynag a ve an boos, th’o an gwin esen ny owth eva dres pùb pris pò estêmyans, ha ny a wrug jùstys warnodho. Unweyth only, Fritz a vedhas lettya dorn an Mytern.

“Pywa?” an Mytern a grias. “Remember ty dhe dhallath dhyraga vy, Mêster Fritz – res yw dhis bos dew our moy erbysek ès my.”

Fritz a welas nag esen vy ow convedhes.

“My ha’n coronal,” ev a styryas, “ny a vydn qwyttya ’lebma dhe whegh eur, marhogeth bys in Zenda wàr nans, ha dewheles gans gwethlu an onour rag kemeres an Mytern eth eur, ena ny oll a vydn marhogeth warbarth dhe’n gorsaf.”

“An gwethlu, dh’y gregy!” Sapt a groffolas.

“Ogh! Pòr gortes yw ow broder, hag ev ow pesy an onour dh’y rejyment ev,” yn medh an Mytern. “Deus, a genderow, nyns eus otham dhe jy a dhallath avarr. Udn votel whath, sos!”

Me a gemeras udn votel whath – gesowgh ny, kyns, dhe leverel udn radn a votel, rag moy ès hanter a veu viajys yn uskys ajy dhe vriansen y Vrâster. Fritz a wrug dascor pùb attent dhe berswâdya. Dhia wil perswâdyans, ev êth bys in bos perswâdys, ha ny oll leunha scon a win ès dell godha dhe ny. An Mytern a dhalathas côwsel adro dhe vyns a vydna gwil i’n termyn a dheu, Sapt coth adro dhe vyns a wrug i’n termyn eus passys, Fritz adro dhe neb mowes, ha my a’n merytys marthys ow longya dhe lydnyath Elphberg. Yth esen ny oll ow kestalkya i’n kettermyn, hag ow sewya Sapt ha’y geskyans: gasa an vorow dhe gemeres with a’y honen.

Wàr an dyweth an Mytern a worras y wedren dhe’n bord ha posa wàr dhelergh in y jair.

“My re evas lowr,” yn medh.

“Nyns oma whensys màn dhe gontradia an Mytern,” yn medhaf.

Defry, th’o y lavar a’n gwirra yn tien – mar meur dr’ylly bos.

Pàn esen vy ow talkya whath, Josef a dheuth ha settya dhyrag an Mytern cruskyn coth ha reveth, gwelweyth y wyscas. Y feu a’y wroweth in neb selder tewl mar bell, mayth esa va ow qwynkya, dell hevelly, in golow an cantolyow.

“Y Vrâster, Dûk Strelsau, ev a’m erhys settya an gwin-ma arâg an Mytern pàn ve an Mytern sqwith a bùb gwin aral, ha pesy orth an Mytern a’y eva, rag oll y gerensa dh’y vroder.”

“Ober dâ, Michael Du!” yn medh an Mytern. “Corkyn mes, Josef. Dh’y gregy! Esa ev o’predery my dhe blynchya dhort y votel?”

Egerys veu an votel, ha Josef a wrug lenwel gwedren an Mytern. An Mytern a’n tastyas. Ena, gans tremyn sad ha gwyw dhe’n eur ha dh’y blit y honen, ev a wrug meras warnan adhedro:

“A dus jentyl, cowetha vy – a Rudolf, ow henderow (sclandrus yw an whedhel, Rudolf, re’m leouta!), th’esof ow ry oll Rùrytânya dhe why bys in hy hanter. Saw na besow’ badna a’n votel dhuwyl-ma, ha my o’th eva abarth yêhes an – an knâva fel-na, broder vy, Michael Du.”

Ha’n Mytern a sêsyas an votel hag omwheles a-ugh y anow, ha’y gwakhe ha dehesy dhe ves, ha gorra y bedn wàr y vrehow dhe’n bord.

Ha ny a wrug eva hunrosow plesont dh’y Vrâster – ha marnas hedna nyns esof ow perthy cov a’n gordhuwher. Par hap yth yw lowr.



A wrug vy cùsca udn vynysen, udn vledhen? Ny wodhyen vy poynt. Me a dhyfunas sodyn, in udn grena. Ow fâss, ow blew, ow dyllas, th’esens y oll ow tevera dowr, ha Sapt coth sevys adâl dhybm, gwenwharth a dhespît wàr y vejeth ha bùcket gwag in y dhorn. Wàr an bord ryptho th’esa Fritz von Tarlenheim a’y eseth, gwydnyk kepar ha bùcka nos ha mar dhu in dadn y lagasow avell bran.

My a labmas serrys wàr ow threys.

“Dha ges yw gyllys re bell, sera!” me a grias.

“Tety valy, gwas, nyns eus termyn rag omdhal. Ny ylly ken tra vëth dha dhyfuna. Pymp eur yw.”

“Bëdh gwarnys, Coronal Sapt –” me a dhalathas arta, tobm ow spyrys, kynth en vy yêyn i’m corf dres ehen.

“Rassendyll,” Fritz a wodorras ow lavar, ow skydnya dhyworth an bord ha kemeres ow bregh, “mir obma.”

Yth esa an Mytern wàr an leur, growedhys oll y hës. Y fâss o mar rudh avell y vlew, hag ev owth anella poos. Sapt, ky coth ha dygortes, a’n pôtyas yn harow. Ny wrug ev gwaya màn, ha ny veu powes in y anellans naneyl. My a welas dell o y fâss ha’y bedn glëb a dhowr, kepar ha’m câss vy.

“Ny re spênas hanter-our in y gever,” yn medh Fritz.

“Ev a wrug eva terweyth moy ès dell wrugow’why dew,” Sapt a groffolas.

My êth wàr bedn dêwlin ha tava y wythy. An pols o uthyk idhyl ha lent. Th’esen ny, oll agan try, owth aspia an eyl dh’y gela.

“O droggyes – an dewetha botel-na?” me a wovydnas, in udn whystra.

“Ny woram màn,” yn medh Sapt.

“Res yw dhe ny cafos medhek.”

“Nyns eus medhek nes ès deg mildir, ha ny alsa mil vedhek y dhry dhe Strelsau hedhyw. Aswonys dâ yw trèm an dra. Ny wra ev gwaya whegh, seyth our na whath.”

“Ha’n cùrunyans!” me a grias in ewn euth.

Fritz a dherevys y scodhow, ha my ow convedhes bos hedna ûsadow moyha menowgh dhodho.

“Res yw dhe ny danvon derivas y bos ev clâv,” yn medh.

“Eâ, martesen,” yn medhaf.

Sapt coth, neb o mar fresk avell egor jarn, a wrug tùchya y bib solabrës ha whetha mog kepar ha jyn êthen.

“Mar ny vëdh ev cùrunys hedhyw,” yn medh, “me a wystel cùrun na vëdh cùrunys nefra.”

“Varia, prag?”

“Ma an hôll-nacyon ena rag y wolcùbma. Hanter a’n army – eâ, ha Michael Du orth y vleyn. On ny parys dhe dhanvon tell yw an Mytern medhow?”

“Tell yw clâv,” yn medhaf, in udn amendya.

“Clâv!” Sapt a dhassonas, ha’y wharth leun a scorn. “Anjy a wor y glevejow re dhâ. ‘Clâv’ o va lies treveth aral!”

“Wèl, res yw dhyn lavasos kyn fednons y soposya,” yn medh Fritz yn tyweres. “Me a vydn dry an nowodhow ha gwil an dra dhe’n gwelha.”

Sapt a dherevys y dhorn.

“Lavar dhèm,” yn medh. “A gresyth jy an Mytern dhe vos droggyes?”

“Cresaf,” a worthebys vy.

“Ha pyw a’n droggyas?”

“An ky damnabyl, Michael Du,” yn medh Fritz inter y dhens.

“Eâ,” yn medh Sapt, “rag na dheffa dh’y gùrunyans. Dh’agan Rassendyll nyns yw Michael teg aswonys. Pàn opynyon eus dhe jy, Fritz? A nyns eus gans Michael mytern parys? A nyns eus gans hanter Strelsau ken ombrofyor? Dell yw Duw yn few, gwas, an se rial yw kellys mar ny wra an Mytern omdhysqwedhes in Strelsau hedhyw. Dhybmo th’yw Michael Du aswonys re dhâ.”

“Ny a yll y dhon dy,” yn medhaf.

“Ha pòr deg y semlant,” yn medh Sapt, in udn vockya.

Fritz von Tarlenheim a gudhas y fâss inter y dhêwla. Th’esa an Mytern owth anella uhel ha poos. Sapt a wrug y dava gans troos unweyth arta.

“Ass yw pedn medhow!” ev a lavaras, “Saw Elphberg yw va, ha mab dh’y das, ha my ow pedry kyns in iffarn ès gasa Michael Du esedhys in y le!”

Rag tecken th’esen ny oll tewys. Ena Sapt a gemeras y bib mes a’y vin ha leverel dhybm, ow plegya y dâl:

“Den a vydn cresy in Tenkys pàn usy va ow tevy coth. Tenkys a wrug dha dhanvon jy obma. Tenkys a wra dha dhanvon lebmyn dhe Strelsau.”

Me a wrug hanaja “Duw Dynam!”, in udn trebuchya wàr dhelergh.

Fritz a dherevys y lagasow in golok freth ha sowthenys.

“Ùnpossybyl!” yn medhaf isel ow lev. “Aswonys vedhama.”

“Peryl yw hedna – warbydn certuster,” yn medh Sapt. “Mar mydnys trehy dha varv, me a wystel, aswonys na vedhys poynt. Eus own dhis?”


“Deus, mab, tety valy! Mès dha vêwnans â dhe goll, te a wor, mars os aswonys in gwir – ha’m bêwnans vy – ha bêwnans agan Fritz. Saw mar nyns êth tejy, th’esof ow lia dhys, Michael Du a wra esedha wàr an se kyns haneth, ha’n Mytern a’y wroweth i’n vagh pò in y vedh.”

“Nefra ny vydn an Mytern gava dhybm,” me a stlevys.

“On ny benenes? Ny vern gyvyans!”

An clock a wrug tyckya hanter-canqweyth, ha try ugans, ha deg ha try ugans, ha my sevys in preder dredhans. Ena y teuth wàr ow fâss neb golok, dell soposys, rag Sapt coth a’m sêsyas er ow dorn, ha cria:

“Êth jy in gwir?”

“Av in gwir,” yn medhaf, ha my ow meras orth fygùr an Mytern wàr an leur ahës.

“Arayes yw,” Sapt a bêsyas, ha whystra gans hast, “ny dhe wodrega haneth i’n Palys. Pàn vedhyn ny gesys pryva, my ha ty, dystowgh ny a wra eskyna an vergh – res yw dhe Fritz powes ha gwetha chambour an Mytern – ha ny a wra marhogeth obma, in udn bonya. Parys vëdh an Mytern – Josef a wra derivas orto – ha res a vëdh marhogeth, dhodho bys in Strelsau arta genef vy, ha dhyso bys in or an wlas, kepar ha pàn ve an jowl orth dha jâcya.”

Me a’n godhya oll in udn pols, hag inclynya pedn.

“Martesen yma chauns,” yn medh Fritz, gans kensa sin dhyworto a wovenek.

“Mar callama scappya bos dyskeverys,” yn medhaf.

“Dyskeverys mar pedhyn ny,” yn medh Sapt, “me a wra danvon Michael Du kyns dhe’n ancow ès mos ow honen, an nev re’m gweressa! Eseth wàr an chair-ma, sos.”

Me a’n obeyas.

Ev a wybyas in mes a’n rom, ha cria “Josef! Josef!” Wosa teyr mynysen ev a dheuth arta, ha Josef ganso. Yth esa an eyl ow ton podyk a dhowr pooth, seban, ha daffar alsen. Th’esa ow crena pàn wrug Sapt styrya oll an studh ha comondya ow dyvarva vy.

Desempys Fritz a wrug gweskel wàr y vordhos:

“Saw an gwethlu! ’Njy a wor! a wor!”

“Agh! Ny vydnyn ny gortos an gwethlu. Ny a vydn marhogeth dhe Hofbau ha kemeres train ena. Pàn dhowns y, an ÿdhyn a vëdh neyjys pell dhe ves.”

“Saw an Mytern?”

“An Mytern a vëdh in selder an gwin. Me a vydn y dhon dy lebmyn.”

“Mar y’n cafons y?”

“Ny wrowns y màn. Fatell allons y? Josef a vydn aga thrailya in kerdh.”

“Saw –”

Sapt a wrug stank gans y droos.

“Nyns eson ny ow qwil gwary,” ev a wrug taredna. “Re’m fay! a ny worama an peryl? Mar cafons y an Mytern defry, ny vëdh y blit lacka ès pàn ny vëdh cùrunys hedhyw in Strelsau.”

Gans an ger-ma, ev êth hag egery an daras yn fen, ha dysqwedhes crefter na vien vy ow tesmygy bos dhodho, ow posa hag ow lyftya an Mytern in y dhêwla. Ha pàn esa va orth y wil, an venyn goth, mabm Johann an gwethyas, hy a dheuth ha sevel i’n daras. Sevys o hy polta, ena hy a drailyas wàr wewen, heb sin vëth a sowthan, ha clattra der an dremenva in kerdh.

“A wrug hy clôwes?” Fritz a grias.

“Me a sens hy clap!” yn medh Sapt, grym lowr, ha don an Mytern in y dhywvregh in mes.

Ha my a sedhas in chair brehek, ha pàn esen vy a’m eseth ena, in hanter-clamder, yth esa Josef ow knyvyas vy ha’m cravas vy erna veu oll ow minvlew ha’m barv imperyal taclow eus passys, ha’m fâss mar vlogh avell bejeth an Mytern. Ha pàn wrug Fritz ow gweles indelma, ev a dednas anellans hir ha cria in mes:

“Re Varia, soweny a wren ny in gwir!”

Th’o whegh eur solabrës, ha nyns esa termyn moy dhe gelly. Constrînys gans Sapt, my a fystenas aberth in chambour an Mytern, ha gwysca ow honen in udnwysk a goronal a’n Gwethlu, ha my ow cafos nebes prës dhe worra qwestyon orth Sapt. Pëth a wrug ev adro dhe’n venyn goth?

“Hy a lias na glôwas hy tra vëth,” yn medh. “Mès rag bos sur, me a golmas hy garrow warbarth, ha pockya lien dorn in hy ganow, ha kelmy hy dêwla, ha’y settya in dadn alwheth in selder an glow, kentrevoges dhe’n Mytern. Josef a vydn aga dyghtya, pùbonen a’n dhew, moy adhewedhes.”

Ena y feuv vy skydnys in wharth, ha Sapt y honen ow minwherthyn grym.

“Dhe’m desmygyans vy,” yn medh ev, “pàn wra Josef derivas ortans an Mytern dhe vos gyllys, y fydnons y cresy ny dhe gafos drog i’n keus. Rag yth yw dhe lia, nyns usy Michael Du ow qwetyas y weles in Strelsau hedhyw.”

Me a worras basnet an Mytern wàr ow fedn. Sapt coth a wrug istyn cledha an Mytern dhybm, ow meras orta vy hir ha dour.

“Grâss dhe Dhuw, ev a wrug ervira trehy y varv!” ev a grias.

“Prag y whrug ev?” me a wovydnas.

“Dre rêson Prynces Flavia dhe leverel y bos ev ow tyrusca hy bogh pàn vydna ry dhedhy abm a genderow cortes. Deus now, res yw dhyn marhogeth.”

“Yw pùptra salow obma?”

“Nyns eus tra vëth salow nag in tyller vëth,” yn medh Sapt. “Mès salwa ny yllyn ny gwil.”

I’n tor’-ma Fritz a dheuth ha jùnya dhyn arta, hag udnwysk a gapten in y gerhyn a’n keth rejyment ha’m gwysk ow honen. Kyns pedn peder mynysen y feu Sapt taclys in y udnwysk ev. Josef a grias bos an vergh parys. Ny a labmas wàr aga heyn ha dallath, in udn wobonya scav. Y feu an gwary in gwayans. Pandra vedha y finweth?

An myttyn ha’y air fresk a wrug glanhe ow frederow, ha me a wor convedhes pùptra a levery Sapt dhybm. Ev o marthys. Scant nyns esa Fritz ow côwsel, ev ow marhogeth kepar ha den in cùsk, mès desempys, heb ken ger vëth adro dhe’n Mytern, Sapta a dhalathas desky istory dhybm in oll y vanylyon a’m bêwnans tremenys, a’m teylu, a’m plesours, hobbys, gwanderow, cothmans, cowetha, ha servons. Ev a wrug desky etyket Lÿs Rùrytânya dhybm, in dadn bromys ev dhe vos prest orth ow elyn rag meneges oll an dus a godha dhybm aga aswon, ha ry hyntys pygebmys favour a dalvia dhybm aga wolcùbma ganso.

“Ha ken tra,” yn medh Sapt. “Catholyk osta, sur?”

“Nyns ov vy màn,” me a worthebys.

“Ren ow thas, cabmgryjyk yw!” Sapt a hanajas, ha dystowgh ev êth in lesson elvednek a’n practycyow ha’n rêwlys in crejyans an Romans.

“I’n gwelha prës,” yn medh, “ny vëdh gwaityans brâs a’th wodhvos, rag drog-gerys yw fara dybreder ha lows an Mytern in kenyver negys a’n par-ma. Saw res yw dhis bos mar dhainty avell amanyn orth an Cardynal. Govenek a’gan beus y wainya dhe ny, awos bos kedrydn stag intredho ha Michael ow tùchya aga bleynorieth.”

Solabrës y feun ny devedhys dhe’n gorsaf. Fritz a dhascafas coraj lowr rag clerhe dhe vêster an gorsaf, meur y varth, towlen an Mytern dell o chaunjys. An train a dheuth in oll y êthen. Eskynys veun ny in caryach adhevîs, ha Sapt a bêsyas y lesson, ow posa wàr an pluvogow dhelergh. Me a wrug checkya ow euryor vy – euryor an Mytern o hedna, heb mar. Eth eur o, yn kewar.

“An qwestyon yw, a wrussons y mos ha’gan sarchya ny?” yn medhaf.

“Y’m beus govenek na wrowns y cafos an Mytern,” Fritz a lavaras, meur y anês, hag i’n dro-ma Sapt o an den a dherevys y scodhow.

Yth esa an train ow viajya yn tâ, ha dhe hanter wosa naw my a wrug aspia der an fenester an tourow pedrak ha mon ow longya dhe cyta vrâs.

“Dha bedncyta, sera lîch,” yn medh Sapt coth gans gwenwharth, ha gwevya y dhorn, ha posa in rag ha gorra y vës wàr wythien codna ow bregh. “Dha bols yw tùch re uskys,” yn medh, in y lev croffolus.

“Nyns ov vy gwrës a ven!” me a grias.

“Ty a vëdh yn tâ lowr,” yn medh, gans inclynyans a’y bedn. “Res yw dhyn leverel fatell eus crèn lêhow wàr agan Fritz. Gwra gwakhe dha gostrel, Fritz, abarth Duw, a vaw!”

Fritz a wrug dell veu erhys dhodho.

“Udn our re avarr,” yn medh Sapt. “Gesowgh ny dhe dhanvon messach bos dha Vrâster devedhys, rag sur nyns eus den vëth dh’agan metya i’n eur-ma. Hag i’n mên-termyn –”

“I’n mên-termyn,” yn medhaf, “an Mytern, dh’y gregy mar ny vydn cafos spot a haunsel.”

Sapt coth a wrug wherthyn in y vriansen, hag istyn y dhorn.

“Elphberg osta, pùb mêsva ahana jy,” yn medh. Ena ev a hockyas, ha leverel cosel in udn aspia orthyn, “Graunt Duw ny dhe vos yn few haneth hogen!”

“Âmen!” yn medh Fritz von Tarlenheim.

An train a wrug sevel. Fritz ha Sapt a labmas in mes, noth aga fedn, ha sensy an daras dhybm. Me a fethas tag codna o sordys ina vy, settya ow basnet warnaf yn fast, ha whetha pejadow cot dhe Dhuw (heb meth orth y leverel). Ena me a worras ow threys wàr eskynleur an gorsaf in Strelsau.

Mes a dorn, pùptra o fysky ha deray: tus ow fystena dhybmo, hottys inter aga dêwla, ha fystena arta in kerdh; tus orth ow hùmbrank bys i’n bùffet; tus owth eskyna hag ow marhogeth tobm aga hast dhe erberow an soudoryon, dhe’n Beneglos, dhe drigva Dûk Michael. I’n very prës mayth esen vy ow lenky an dewetha lobm a’m hanaf a goffy, pùb clogh i’n cyta a dardhas in kessenyans a joy, ha mûsyk menestrouthy a vresel ha banlevow a dus, hebma oll a wrug gweskel wàr ow scovarn.

Ot an Pympes Mytern Rùdolf in Strelsau, y cyta dhâ! Hag anjy oll ow cria avês –

“Dùrsona dhe’n Mytern!”

Gwessyow Sapt coth a wrug cryhy in minwharth.

“Dùrsona dhe’n Mytern!” ev a whystras. “Kebmer coraj, a vab!” ha my ow clôwes y dhorn dhe wasca wàr ow glin.






Definitions have generally been confined to those relevant for the story. To keep the glossary to a manageable length the listing excludes the most common words. These are best looked up in Gerlyver Kescows – A Cornish Dictionary for Conversation (Ian Jackson, Agan Tavas 2017), for which an up-to-date spell-checker is available at If you need grammar, by far the most helpful book is Desky Kernowek (Nicholas Williams, Evertype 2012).

The format and abbreviations in the glossary are the same as in Gerlyver Kescows, with one refinement. In this listing a middle dot following a vowel sound shows that primary stress is on that syllable (in cases where it is not the penultimate syllable); a double vertical line after a disyllabic word indicates that both syllables are more-or-less evenly stressed.

a’n leuv gledh phr morganatic

acceptya accept

actour gorthtro m actours understudy

afînys adj smart, refined

agh interj oh (protesting)

Alman adj German

Almaynek German (language)

âmeninterj amen

ancompressadow adj irrepressible

ancow death

androw late afternoon

andydro adj indirect

aneth m anedhow residence

anês unease

anetter unease

anvoth reluctance

apperya appear

appoyntyans m appoyntyansow appointment

arâg prep in front of

army army

arvrusyans appraisal, assessment

astra·nj adj = stranj

aswonvos acquaintance

attendyans attention

auncyent adj ancient

awos hedna phr for all that

awot interj = ot

banlevm banlevow cheer

bedha dare

beha load

bejeth face

benenyk f benenygow young lady

berr adj short

bleyno·rieth precedence

boosa hig phr bait a hook

brafter excellence

brâs-oberys adj magnificent

Brâster Majesty (referring to royalty)

broder dâ m breder brother-in-law

bùcket m bùckettys bucket

bùngalow m bùngalows bungalow

bytteth adv ever

cabmgryjyk adj heretical

cafos drog i’n keus phr smell a rat

cantolbren m cantolbrednyer candlestick

ca·rdynal m cardynalys cardinal

caro·rieth [love] affair

certuster certainty

clap chatter

clavel f clavellys mantelpiece

cledhevyas m cledhevysy swordsman

co·mpany company

compla mention, refer to

confùndya confound

consûmya consume

consydra consider

contemplans contemplation

contes f contesow countess

contradia contradict

coraj courage

coronal m coronals colonel

crèn lêhow ague

crocken f crockednow snare

croffal growl

croffolas growl; mutter

croffolus adj grumbling

cruskyn m cruskydnow flagon

cryhy wrinkle

cufter kindness

cùrunyans coronation

cygar m cygarow cigar

cyvyl adj civil

dalgh capacity

damnabyl adj damned

damsel f damsels damsel

dascùntell rally (sb)

daskemeres recover

delycyùs adj delicious

den bylen m tus vylen villain

den jentyl m tus gentleman

densa good man

der conj = dell

departya depart

determyans resolution, decision

desmygyans guess(ing)

diaha ease (freedom from apprehension)

diarva disarm

dos dhe wel phr appear

dothter discretion

dre / dr’ conj = dell

dregynus adj mischievous

dreslebmel skip over

drog-davasak m drog-davasogyon scandal-monger

droggya drug

dûk m dûkys duke

Dùrsona dhe’n Mytern phr God save the King

dûta m dûtys duty

duwes f duwesow goddess

duwyl adj divine

dyghtyans dealing

dylowrder insufficiency

dyrusca scrape the skin

Duw Dynam phr Good God 

dybreder adj careless

dydhanans amusement, diversion

dynyak adj attractive

dynyores f dynyoresow coquette

dy·nyta dignity

dysencledhyas disinter

dyserry placate

dyweres adj helpless

dywysycter zeal

edrega = edrek

egor jarn m egrow daisy

eh interj eh

encressya increase

entent m ententys intention

entryng entrance

eqwal adj equal, matching

er êrys heir

er am marth phr to my surprise

erberow soudoryon phr troop barracks

erby·dn prep = warby·dn

erbysek adj = erbysus

erya defy, insist

erytuster heredity

eskynleur m eskynleuryow platform (station)

estêmyans esteem, admiration

estregus adj absent

etyke·t etiquette

exaltya exalt

ferfter firmness

fers adj fierce

forest m forestys forest

fortyn fortune

frigow pl nose

Frynkek French (language)

fysky rush

fysment m fysmens (facial) feature

garget m gargettys garter

gasa hepcor phr waive

gobonya trot

goderry interrupt

godnys brâs pl artillery

godrega lodge, stay (overnight)

golowyjyon pl radiance

goos pell phr distant relative(s)

gorthenep opposition

gorthter obstinacy

goyeyn adj cool

grauntya grant

gre standing, rank

grolyak adj gruff

grym adj grim

gwander m gwanderow weakness

gwandrans m wandering, rambling

gwayans movement

gwedhwes f gwedhwesow widow


gwenwharth m gwenwharthow grin, smile

gwenwherthyn grin, smile

gwersyor m gwersyoryon versifier

gwestva accommodation

gwethlu an onour phr the guard of honour

gwevya wave

gwil oll y ehen phr do one’s best

gwlascor f gwlascorow kingdom

gwybya dart

gwythiek adj bloodshot

hâlya haul

havalder likeness, resemblance

helghyans hunting

hewel adj visible

hirder length; height (of person)

hirgelgh m hirgelhow oval

hogen adv still

hudhyk adj merry

hùmbrynkyades f hùmbrynkyadesow escort (female)

hynt m hyntys hint

hyntya hint

idhyl adj languid

imperyal adj imperial

in danjer prep under (control, influence etc)

inclynyans pedn nod

inferya infer

inferyans inference

intertainya entertain

iny urging

Italek Italian (language)

Jamys James

Jory George

jùstyfians justification

kekefrë·s adv = kefrë·s (emphatic)

kemeres le phr replace

kemyna bequeath

kentrevoges f kentrevogesow neighbour (female)

ker f kerow fort

keskyans exhortation

kesscrefor m kesscreforyon correspondent

kessenyans peal (bells)

kestalkya talk, chat

kesviajyor m kesviajyoryon fellow-traveller

kigek adj fleshy

knyvyas clip (hair)

kynyewel dine

lanergh m lanerhy glade

lecyans m lecyansow licence

lestans m lestansow obstacle

leva utter

lobm m lobmow drop

loselwas m loselwesyon idler

lower gweyth phr several times

lydnyath lineage, dynasty

lynaja lineage, ancestry

lynyaj = lynaja

lÿs f lÿsyow court

lÿscadnas f lÿscanasow ambassador (masculine reference for pronouns if male)

lyther kemyn m lytherow will

lyw m lywyow colour

mansyon m mansyons chateau

menowghter frequency

menowghva haunt

mery adj merry, jovial

mes a dorn phr at once

molethy curse

monark m monarkys monarch

moren f moronyon wench

mos wàr y gàm phr to be steady / cool

musur m musurow measure

mûtyans sulking, moping

mydnas knack phr be [just] about to

myshyf injury, harm, ruin

myster [an] jornalyst journalism

mysterden m mysterdens tradesman

nakevys adj = ankevys

nes’hevyn relation(s)

nessa approach

nôbyl m nôblys noble[man]

nôbylta nobility

nôcyon m nôcyons notion

ombarusy get ready intr

omblegya bow

omdhal quarrel

omdhysqwedhes appear

omdrailya turn (round)

omglôwes feel (in oneself)

omgomendya introduce oneself

omlath dewdhen m omladhow duel

omsensy feel, consider

ôstes ôstesow hostess

ôstya stay (as a guest)

othobmak adj beggarly (sb); desperate (sth)

parleth m parledhow parlour

pâss m pâcys pace, step

’pe verb = a pe

pedn medhow m pednow drunkard

pedndour m pendourys keep (castle)

penpleth perplexity, puzzlement

pensevyk m pensevygyon prince

performyans performance

perhenes f perhenesow possessor (female)

perhenogeth possession

personek adj personal

pe·tygrew m pe·tygrews pedigree

plegadow adj buxom

plegyans bow

plenta plenty

plêsya please

plynchya flinch

poll head

pollgledh m pollgledhyow moat

pons derevel m ponsow drawbridge

portreyans m portreyansow portrait

pottya qwarel phr claim

prynces f pryncesow princess

pryns m pryncys prince

pystyk m pystygow injury

qwyt adv completely

qwyttya quit, leave

ragwel foresight, providence

rainya reign

rebukyans rebuke, reproof

repref reproof

rescous rescue

reun col reunen bristles

reveth adj marvellous

rêwlyas m rêwlysy ruler

rol m rôlys role

Roman m Romans Roman

roslyw adj rosy

Rùrytânya Ruritania

Rùrytânyan adj/m Rùrytânyans Ruritanian

sacrylych sacrilege

salow adj safe[-and-sound]

salusy greet

sarchya search for

saw ... yn unsel phr except

sawment preservation

scorn scorn

se rial m sêys throne

sêlya seal

sêmly adj handsome

senyans sound(ing)

sera lîch phr my liege (addressing king)

sera rial phr sire (addressing king)

sêsya seize

sethor gans godn phr marksman

showr a phr a lot of

siansus teg phr whimsical

sket adv straightaway

skyrmya fence

socyal adj social

solas entertainment

Spaynek Spanish (language)

stank stamp (heavy tread)

stlevy stammer

styryans explanation

tackya dorn (wàr) clap (on)

tacla array

tag choking

talkya talk

tallyour m tallyours trencher

tanek adj fiery

taredna thunder, roar

tastya taste, try

tavasa speak out

tavasak see drog-davasak

tavasans scolding

tebmyk m temygow little bit

tecken f tekednow moment

tell conj = fatell (in sense ‘that’)

temptyor m temptyoryon tempter

tenkys fate

ter conj = fatell (in sense ‘that’)

terlentry twinkle

ternos adv the next day

ternos vyttyn phr next morning

tiogus adj country, rural

tôkynva f tôkynvaow booking-office

torgh coos m tergh wild boar

trank heb worfen phr an eternity

transformya transform

treddeth adv three days

trega dwell

trèm look, sight

tremen passing

trenja adv the day after tomorrow

trigva v trigvaow residence

tùchyng prep concerning, about

tyckya tick

tynkyal jingle

ûnyve·rsyta ûnyve·rsytys university

vell prep = avell

very adj very

vëth adv even (with comparative)

vexya vex, annoy

viajyor m viajyoryon traveller

voys m voycys voice

vytel col food

wàr nùk phr straightaway

wàr rag phr = in rag

wàr ves phr = avês

was form of address = a was

whans a wodhvos phr curiosity

whedhlor m whedhloryon gossip

whor dre laha f whereth sister-in-law

whyst interj hush

whythrus adj searching

wondrys adj wonderful

worshyp social position

y tegoth verb it behoves

y Uhelder title his Highness

’yll verb = a yll

’ylly verb = a ylly

yùrl m yùrlys earl

An text-ma: 7 Hedra 2020

An Nawnjek Stap Warn Ugans

An Canker neb a wrug Gwary gans an Mor

Ganowclap - Jaberwocky


Jabberwocky’ gans Lewis Carroll trailys dhe Gernowek

          gans Nicholas Williams






Bryjyas yth o ha’n tôvow sluan

          a droya hag a darda dres an hîrdh;

an boragôvas y o fruan

          hag y whre dre-rathas sîrdh.

“Bëdh war a’n Ganowclap, a vab,

          a’y jalla sherp, a’y skyvlow lymm.

Avoyd an Jûjûbedhen; nagh

          frûmyans an Bondergrymm!

Y gledha vorpek sêsya a wrug

          ha whelas escar mank heb own.

Y sedhas ryb an Wedhen Frug

          ha powes prederus down.

Pàn esa ow sevel ùffek y vrës

          an Ganowclap gans lagas flàm

whyflyn a dheuth der an dùlygoos

          ow crabla stappys camm.

Onen, dew! Onen, dew! Pòr sherp ha glew

          êth cledha vorpek ow trehy fre;

gans bommow garow ev a’n gwrug marow

          ha penglomm ponya tre.

A wrusta ladha’n Ganowclap?

          Deus dhe’m barlen, a vaw beshoy!

A dhëdh frabô! Callay, callô!

          y whescas in y joy.

Bryjyas yth o ha’n tôvow sluan

          a droya hag a darda dres an hîrdh;

an boragôvas y o fruan

          hag y whre dre-rathas sîrdh.




Hans Christian Andersen


Kernowek © Ian Jackson 2020


Words / meanings not found in Gerlyver Kescows (Jackson / Agan Tavas 2017) are glossed at the end.


Lies bledhen alebma y fewa Emprour, esa ow cara dyllas nowyth kebmys, may fedha ev ow spêna oll y vona rag gwainya semlant brav. Bern nyns o y soudoryon dhodho, nyns o bern dhodho an gwaryjy naneyl, na nyns esa dhodho whans marnas rôsya in mes rag dysqwedhes y dhyllas nowyth. Y’n jeva côta dhe bùb eur i’n jëdh, ha dell leverer a neb mytern, “Yma ev i’n consel,” y fedha an bobel ow leverel anodho ev pùpprës, “Yma an Emprour i’n dhyllasva.”


I’n cyta veur mayth esa va tregys, yth o pùptra pòr hudhyk; y fedha estrenyon, bùsh brâs, devedhys dy pùb jorna. Udn jëdh dew dùllor a dheuth; anjy a wrug pretendya bos gwiadoryon, ha declarya aga godhvos gwia stoff, tecka galla oll desmygy. An colours ha patronys o feythus dres ehen; kefrës, dhe’n dyllas gwies a’n stoff-ma, yth esa an vertû marthys y vos anhewel dhe bùbonen nag o gwyw dhe’n soodh a sensy ev, pò nag o ma’s gocky dygosk.


“Assa via an dyllas-na rial!” an Emprour a dybys. “Mar teffen vy ha gwysca an re-na, y halsen dyskevra py tus i’m empîr nag yw gwyw dhe’n plâss a’s teves; y halsen vy decernya an re codnek dhyworth an re gocky. Eâ, res yw gwia an stoff dhybmo heb let!”


Hag ev a ros dhe’n dhew dùllor cals a vona parys, rag may whrellons y dallath aga gweyth.


Wèl, anjy a wrug settya dyw starn in bàn ha gwil wis y bosons y in whel; saw nyns esa tra vëth wàr an starnyow. Dewhans anjy a wrug demondya syjan a’n tecka hag owr moyha costly; hebma a wrussons y gorra i’ga fockettys aga honen, hag anjy ow lavurya worth an starnyow gwag bys i’n nos holergh.


“Me a garsa godhvos pana bellder res ethons y avauncys gans an stoff,” an Emprour a dybys. Saw nyns o va pòr attês pàn dheuth ev ha predery na ylly an re nag o gwyw dh’aga soodh y weles màn. Yth esa ev ow cresy, heb mar, na vedha dhodho y honen chêson vëth a dhowt, byttele gwell o ganso i’n kensa le danvon ken onen rag cafos stuth an mater. Oll an bobel i’n cyta a wodhya an gallos reveth esa dhe’n stoff, hag oll whensys dhe dhyskevra pygebmys o anwywder pò gockyneth aga hynsa.


“Me a dhanvon ow Menyster coth len dhe’n wiadoryon,” an Emprour a dybys. “Ev yw an gwelha jùj a syght an stoff, rag ev a’n jeves skentoleth, ha gwell agesso nyns eus den in skians a’y soodh!”


Now an Menyster coth dâ a wrug mos in mes bys i’n hel mayth esa an dhew dùllor a’ga eseth ow lavurya worth an starnyow gwag.


“Mercy re’gan salwo!” an Menyster coth a brederys, hag ev owth egery efan y lagasow. “Ny welama tra vëth oll!” Saw ny lavaras ev hebma.


Pùbonen a’n dhew dùllor a’n pesys a dhos nes, y praydha, ha govyn orto, dar, nyns esa va ow comendya an colours ha’n patronys? Nena anjy a wrug poyntya dhe’n starn wag, ha’n Menyster coth truan a wrug egery y lagasow whath, saw ny welas tra vëth, rag tra nyns esa dhe weles.


“Mercy!” ev a brederys, “’Allama bos mar wocky defry? Ny wrug avy tyby hedna james, ha na vedhens den vëth i’n bÿs dh’y wodhvos. A nyns ov vy gwyw dhe’m soodh? Nâ! nefra ny dhegoth derivas na yllyn vy gweles an stoff.”


“A ny leverowgh agas breus?” yn medh onen a’n wiadoryon. “Ô, ass ywa hudol – gorhanus glân!” an Menyster coth a worthebys, hag ev owth aspia glew der y spectaclys. “Tecka batron, ha tecka golours! Eâ, me a vydn derivas dhe’n Emprour y bosama pës dâ ganso.”


“Wèl, dâ yw hedna genen ny,” yn medh an dhew wiador, hag anjy owth henwel an colours, hag ow styrya an patron astranj. An Menyster coth a woslowas gans rach, may halla ev y leverel arta pàn dheffa an Emprour. Ha hedna a wrug ev.


Now an dùlloryon a wovydnas moy mona, ha moy syjan hag owr, eus otham anodhans rag gwia, dell wrussons y pretendya. Anjy a’n gorras oll i’ga fockettys aga honen, ha ny veu neujen vëth gorrys wàr an starn; saw anjy a wrug pêsya lavurya, par ha kyns, orth an frâmys gwag.


An Emprour a whythras unweyth arta a verr spis, hag ev ow tanvon ken sodhak len, rag gweles fatl’esa an gwians owth avauncya, ha mar pedha an stoff parusys yn scon. Ev a wrug fara kepar ha’n kensa whelor; ev a wrug meras stag ha stark, mès drefen nag esa dhe weles marnas an starnyow gwag ny welas ev tra vëth.


“A nyns yw hedna darn druth y stoff?” a wrug an dhew dùllor govyn; hag anjy y ow tysplêtya hag ow styrya an patron sêmly nag esa màn.


“Nyns ov vy gocky!” an den a brederys, –  “an praga yw sur-redy ow soodh dhâ, nag oma gwyw dhedhy. Coynt lowr yw hodna, saw res yw dhybm heb gasa dhe verkya.” Ytho ev a wrug praisya an stoff na welas ev, ha clerhe y blesour a’n colours teg hag a’n patron hudol. “Eâ! gorhanus yw” – yn medh dhe’n Emprour.


Yth esa oll an bobel i’n dre ow côwsel a’n stoff spladn. Whensys o an Emprour y honen dh’y weles whath wàr an starn. Gans rûth a dus dhêwysys, hag i’ga mesk an dhew sodhak len a vysytyas solabrës, ev êth dhe’n dhew dùllor sotel, neb esa lebmyn ow qwia corf hag enef heb fîber na neus.


“A nyns yw hedna bryntyn!” yn medh an dhew sodhak coth, a vysytyas unweyth solabrës. “A nyns usy agas Meureth owth attendya an patron – an colours?” Ha nena anjy a wrug poyntya dhe’n starn wag, ha soposya bos an re erel ow qweles an stoff.


“Pandr’yw hobma?” an Emprour a brederys. “Ny welaf tra vëth oll! Hòn yw scruthus. Ov vy gocky? A nyns ov vy gwyw dhe vos Emprour? Y fia hedna tra moyha uthyk dhe wharvos orthyf.” “Ô, ass yw pòr deg!” yn medh a voys uhel. “Y’n jeves agan comendyans a wormola.” Hag ev a sînas gans y bedn, contentys y omdhon, ha meras wàr an starn wag, rag ny vydna leverel na welas tra vëth. Oll an coscar ganso a veras stark ha stag, ha ny welsons y oll tra vëth, na moy ès dell welas nagonen; saw, kepar ha’n Emprour, anjy a wrug leverel “Ass yw teg!” ha’y gùssulya may whrella gwysca an dyllas nowyth spladn-ma, dhe’n kensa prës, i’n keskerdh brâs a dheu. “Th’yw spladn, bryntyn, fascyonus!” êth a vin dhe vin. A bùb tu yth esa, dell hevelly, lowenheans kemyn, ha’n Emprour ow ry dhe’n dùlloryon an tîtel “Gwiadoryon a’n Lÿs Emprourek”.


Dyfun o an dùlloryon oll an nos, bys i’n myttyn may fedha an keskerdh ow wharvos, hag ev ow colowy moy ès whêtek cantol. Yth esa an bobel ow qweles kebmys esens y ow lavurya harlych rag fynsya dyllas nowyth an Emprour. Anjy a wrug mâkya kemeres an stoff dhywar an starn; gwil trohow i’n air gans gweljow brâs, sewa gans najedhow heb neus, ha wortyweth leverel, “Lebmyn an dyllas yw parys!”


An Emprour a dheuth y honen gans y varhogyon moyha bryntyn; ha’n dhew dùllor a wrug derevel udn vregh, kepar ha pàn vêns y ow sensy nampyth, ha leverel, “Gwelowgh, ot an lavrak! ot an côta! ot an clôk!” hag erel. “Mar scav yw avell gwias kefnys; y whrussa den desmygy nag usy ev ow qwysca tra vëth, otta y decter poran.”


“Eâ!” yn medh an varhogyon; saw ny welsons y tra vëth, rag tra nyns esa dhe weles.


“A vydn agas Meureth Emprourek plêgya er y jentylys dhe omdhysky?” yn medh an dùlloryon, “ena ny a wra agas gwysca i’n dyllas nowyth obma dhyrag an gweder meras brâs.”


An Emprour a wrug dysky y dhyllas, hag in y gerhyn an dùlloryon a worras pùb dyllas nowyth a wrussons y parusy; ha’n Emprour owth omdrailya adro hag adro dhyrag an gweder.


“Ô, ass yw dâ an syght! ass yw rial an desedhyans!” yn medh oll. “Tecka batron! tecka golours! Hèn yw gwysk spladn!”


“Yma an dus a’ga sav wàr ves, ha’n nenlen gansans a vëdh degys a-ugh agas Meureth i’n keskerdh!” a dherivas chif-mêster an ceremonys.


“Wèl, parys oma” – an Emprour a worthebys. “A nyns ov vy afînys yn tâ?” Ha nena ev a drailyas arta dhe’n gweder, rag ev dhe whansa may whrella an bobel desevos y bos ev ow contempla y daclans, ha meur ino y les.


An chamberlyns, mayth esa ober dhodhans don an losten, a wrug plêgya gans aga dêwla dhe’n leur, kepar ha pàn vêns y ow kemeres an mantel; ena anjy a wrug mâkya sensy nampyth in bàn. Ny vedhens y gasa merkya na welsons y tra vëth.


Indella an Emprour êth in keskerdh in dadn y nenlen rych, ha pùbonen wàr an strêtys ow leverel, “Ass yw dyllas nowyth an Emprour heb parow; tecka losten dh’y vantel; ass yw desedhys poran!” Ny vydna nagonen gasa convedhes na welas ev tra vëth, rag y fia hedna ow tysqwedhes nag o va gwyw dh’y soodh, pò nag o ma’s pòr wocky. Bythqweth ny veu dhe dhyllas an Emprour spêda a’n par-ma.


“Mès in y gerhyn nyns eus tra vëth!” udn flehyk a grias wortyweth.


“Ogh fatell lever heb drog!” yn medh an tas; hag oll ow whystra, an eyl dh’y gela, an pëth a lavaras an flogh.


“Mès in y gerhyn nyns eus tra vëth!” yn medh an bobel gowal wàr an dyweth. Hedna a wrug tava an Emprour in y golon, rag an gwir dhe vos dhodhans, dell o apert; saw ev a brederys in y honen, “Res yw dhybm collenwel an keskerdh.” Hag an chamberlyns a wrug sensy yn strotha whath, hag anjy ow tegy an losten nag esa màn.



Abbreviations have the same meaning as in Gerlyver Kescows.


a voys uhel phr aloud

anhewel adj invisible

anwywder unsuitability

astranj = stranj

ceremony m ceremonys ceremony

chamberlyn m chamberlyns chamberlain

contempla contemplate

coscar col retinue

costly adj costly

degoth verb it behoves

desedhyans fit (of clothes)

dewhans adv at once

druth adj precious

dygosk adj incorrigible

emprourek adj imperial

fara fare

feythus adj beautiful

fîber m fîbrow fibre

flehyk m flehygow little child

fynsya finish

glew adj piercing, penetrating

gorhanus adj enchanting

gweljow brâs pl shears

gwiador m gwiadoryon weaver

gwil wis phr pretend

harlych adv hard

heb parow phr incomparable

hudhyk adj merry

hudol adj charming

hynsa neighbours, peers

i’n kensa le phr in the first place

james adv ever

losten f lostednow train (of mantle)

lowenheans rejoicing

mâkya pretend

mantel m mentylly mantle

mercy mercy

nenlen f nenlednow canopy

omdrailya turn round

plêgya condescend

par ha = kepar ha

poyntya point

reveth adj peculiar, surprising

sêmly adj handsome

sewa sew

stark adv fixedly

starn [gwiador] f starnyow [gwiador] loom

sur-redy adv certainly

syjan silk

taclans adornment

tùllor m tùlloryon cheat, fraudster

whelor m wheloryon seeker, inquirer


A modern dictionary specifically designed
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Kernowek Qwyck: first ten lessons of a new course for beginners, especially for those learning on their own. Downloadable as pdf. / Kernowek Qwyck, kensa deg lesson a gors nowyth rag dalathoryon, ha spessly rag omdhyscoryon. Is-cargadow in pdf. 

Kernowek Qwyck KS 23 Mvn 2020.pdf



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Pronunciation Guide


To accompany Gerlyver Kescows
Guidance is based on Standard Cornish, the most phonetic of the spelling systems founded on Middle Cornish. It reflects a plausible reconstruction of Cornish as spoken in the western parts of Cornwall at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The influence of early revivalists can still be heard today in certain ‘spelling pronunciations’ of Unified Cornish, even though that orthography is now rarely used. Such pronunciations, here introduced by ‘or’ in round brackets, are best avoided: they are a misunderstanding of Unified Cornish, which was not conceived as a phonetic system.
Vowels (including diphthongs)
There is a strong tendency to reduce simple vowel sounds in unstressed syllables to the vowel sound in THE when not rhymed with THEE, though i or u ‘colouring’ will persist. And stressed short e likewise reduces before retroflex r. When they are not stressed, ow and final u tend to lose the w sound.
a In a monosyllable not ending in a voiceless, geminate or pre-occluded consonant, the vowel sound in CAT but lengthened; also in a monosyllable ending gh, sk, st or th. Otherwise as for à.
à   The vowel sound in CAT.
â    The vowel sound in CAT but lengthened. In monosyllables ending in l n s or v, as for ò but lengthened (or as for a). When stressed in loan-words before c p ss or t, optionally as for ê (a in paper may also be so pronounced).
ai    When stressed, as for ê. Otherwise as for è.
au    When stressed, as for ô. Otherwise as for ò.
aw    The vowel sound in COW.
ay    The vowel sound in FLY (or as for ai). But some pronounce with lowered tongue, as for ey.
e       In a monosyllable not ending in a voiceless, geminate or pre-occluded consonant, the vowel sound in THERE; also in a monosyllable ending gh, sk, st or th (but see note below). Otherwise as for è.
è     The vowel sound in PET.
ê      The vowel sound in THERE.
ë         As for ê or î according to preference.
eu   When stressed, either the vowel sound in FUR or as for ê (or u). Otherwise either the vowel sound in FUR but shortened or as for è (or u).
ew      As for yw. But the ‘yoo’ sound of USE in Ewny and relevant loan-words.
ey   The vowel sound in FLY but with the tongue lowered (or as for î). In unweyth ‘once’, dewweyth ‘twice’ etc it is reduced to the vowel sound in PET (or KIT).
i      The vowel sound in ME. But often reduced to the vowel sound in KIT when unstressed.
î      The vowel sound in ME.
o      When in a monosyllable not ending in a voiceless, geminate or pre-occluded consonant, as for ò but lengthened; also in a monosyllable ending gh, sk, st or th. Otherwise as for ò.
ò        Half-way between the vowel sound in COT and the one in CUT.
ô      The vowel sound in CORE.
oo      Lips as for ô, tongue as for û (or as for ô). This sound was originally confined to certain monosyllabic environments but then began to spread: for example, scoodh and scoodhya for scodhya.
ou     When stressed, as for û, though sometimes heard as for ow in loan-words. Otherwise as for ù.
ow    The vowel sound in CUT + w, pronounced as a diphthong. Some pronounce half-way between this sound and the one in COW. Some pronounce as ù before a vowel.
ôw     As for ow or yw according to preference.
oy     The vowel sound in COY but with the tongue lowered.
u       When stressed, as for î (or as in German grün ‘green’). Otherwise (and in auxiliary gwrug) the vowel sound in KIT (or as in German hübsch ‘pretty’). But always as for ù before a vowel. As for yw finally. In ugh and derivatives, the ‘yoo’ sound of USE.
ù     The vowel sound in COULD.
û      The vowel sound in COO. But û in relevant loan-words has the ‘yoo’ sound of USE.
y       At the beginning of a word or alone as a particle, the vowel sound in THE when not rhymed with THEE. Alone meaning ‘they’ or stressed at the end of a word, the vowel sound in ME but with the tongue lowered. Unstressed at the end of a word of more than one syllable, the final vowel sound in TEDDY or BODY (slight variation as in English). Otherwise, the vowel sound in KIT.
ÿ        As for î or ê according to preference.
yw      The vowel sound in KIT + w, pronounced as a diphthong.
As a general rule, sk and st lengthen the preceding vowel in a monosyllabic word. But an e is often pronounced short in this position; an i-sound always. The latter is accordingly written y in Standard Cornish.
Consonants (geminates usually pronounced as single, but see bm dn dnh lh ss)
b        As in English. But as for p in heb, neb, pùb, ryb when next word begins with a voiceless consonant, l or n.
bm    As in English but the first element pronounced only lightly (pre-occluded m). Those writing mm may still pronounce as bm.
c        Before any e i or y, as in SAT (but see [s]cy below for relevant loan-words). Otherwise as in CAT but generally with less aspiration than in English.
ch      As in CHAT. But as for k if written in words originating in Greek (though this is a derogation, under the influence of Unified Cornish Revised, from the k-spelling found in the Standard Cornish specification).
ck     As for k.
d      As in English.
dh     As in THAT. But as in THIN before any v and (for some) when final. But often silent in the combination rdh when final and occasionally elsewhere (kerdhes, for example); for some, as for rth when final.
dn       As in English but the first element pronounced only lightly (pre-occluded n). Those writing nn may still pronounce as dn.
dnh       As for dn, but d tending to t, nh a single sound (voiceless n with slight aspiration). Some write as nn.
f     As English F (but as English V in 2nd state). When final, it is pronounced only lightly or is wholly silent.
g      As in English. But as for k in prag, rag (and finally in auxiliary gwrug) before voiceless consonant, l or n; and medially before any v.
gh   As in LOCH. But often reduced to h or even silent.
h    As in English. But it may become silent between vowels.
j      As in English.
k     As in English but generally with less aspiration.
l      As in English. But only some use the ‘dark’ version heard in FILL. After an f sound (however spelled) in the same word, or after a k or p sound (however spelled) in the same utterance, it may be pronounced as for lh; also in whedhel, pronounced ‘whethelh’.
lh     A single sound: voiceless retroflex l with slight aspiration. Some write as ll.
m      As in English.
n     As in English. After an f sound (however spelled) in the same word, or after a k or p sound (however spelled) in the same utterance, it may be pronounced as if nh: a voiceless n with slight aspiration.
ng    As in English: single sound ‘ng’, but double sound ‘ng-g’ in relevant loan-words.
p     As in English but generally with less aspiration.
q     As in English but generally with less aspiration.
 r   Trilled gently on tongue tip (not rolled). But retroflex (tip of tongue curled slightly back, no trill) when preceded by vowel and followed by consonant, or when final (except when next word in same utterance begins with trilled r).
s      As in SAT. But as in IS (i.e. as if z) medially before a vowel or voiced consonant in the same utterance, when final after a stressed vowel, and in plural suffix ys. Also initially in relevant loan-words. And for some speakers in other circumstances by analogy. But ss is always pronounced as in KISS, except in the combination ssy (see below).
[s]cy     In relevant loan-words, as for sh. But in a verb-noun like chacya, cy is simply c + consonantal y.
 sh          In loan-words, as in English.
sr      In words of Celtic origin, as if dr: for example, asran as adran; Resrudh as Redrudh and better so spelled.
[s]sy       In loan-words, as for sh.
t      As in English but generally with less aspiration.
th    As in THIN. But final rth is often reduced to rh: voiceless retroflex r with slight aspiration.
v      As in English. But as for f medially before any l n or r, and optionally in similar environemnt: e.g. lavurya, wharvos.
w      A ‘glide’ as in English. But only lightly pronounced in initial gwr, wr and qwr.
wh      As in WHEN pronounced precisely (voiceless w with slight aspiration). ‘Lazy’ pronunciation as w is not an option.
x    In loan-words, as in TAX.
y   Before a vowel, y is a ‘glide’ with the same pronunciation as English consonantal y. Initial yê / yêw / yêy optionally as for e / ew / ey respectively.
z      In loan-words, as in English.

Regressive assimilation may occur when consonants meet across the boundary of two closely associated words. The commonest instances have been noted above. When consonants come together inside a word, assimilatory or dissimilatory devoicing can occur. Some of these changes will happen automatically in fluent speech. Others are practised by some speakers only. The detail is beyond the scope of this guidance sheet.

Cornish words generally have a relatively strong stress accent. The primary stress falls in most cases on the penultimate syllable of a word. Some disyllables are evenly stressed. In a hyphenated word, each element bears its own stress (if any). Monosyllabic prepositions are unstressed except for emphasis. Particles are always unstressed. Stress is usually reduced on a few other monosyllabic words qualifying a noun or adjective: e.g. neb, pòr, pùb.
© Ian Jackson 2019                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This version September 2019

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Auxiliary / Helper verbs

Auxiliary / Helper verbs

being “Gwil, Mydnas, Gallos” and of course “Bos”.

Bos – to be

Gwil – to do or to make

Mydnas – to wish

Gallos – to be able

These verbs are very useful when making sentences or asking questions.

They can be used in two ways;

  • In conjunction with personal pronouns (me, te, ev, hy, ny, why, y)
  • Each verb has verbal paradigms to cover the different tenses (see below)

Often  it is easier for you to use these verbs with personal pronouns as these are used with the third person singular of the verb only and do not require you to know all the paradigms for the specific verb you wish to use.

It should be remembered that “Bos” has significantly more tenses than the other verbs, so we will concentrate on “Gwil, Mydnas and Gallos”,

Verbal Paradigms:

Gwil – present/future

Gwrav vy – I do/make

Gwres ta / Gwreta – you do/make

Gwra ev – he does/makes

Gwra hy – she does/makes

Gwren ny – we do/make

Gwrewgh why – you do/make

Gwrowns y – they do/make

Gwil – using personal pronouns

Me a wra – I do/make

Te a wra – you do/make

Ev a wra – he does/makes

Hy a wra – she does/makes

Ny a wra – we do/make

Why a wra – you do/make

Y a wra – they do/make

Note: the “a” particle creates a second/soft mutation and therefore the “g” is removed

Mydnas – present/future

Mydnaf vy – I wish to

Mydnys ta / Mynta – you wish to

Mydn ev – he wishes to

Mydn hy – she wishes to

Mydnyn ny – we wish to

Mydnowgh why – you wish to

Mydnons y – they wish to

Mydnas – using personal pronouns

Me a vydn – I wish to

Te a vydn – you wish to

Ev a vydn – he wishes to

Hy a vydn – she wishes to

Ny a vydn – we wish to

Why a vydn – you wish to

Y a vydn – they wish to

Note: the “a” particle creates a second/soft mutation and changes the “m” to “v”


Gallos – present/future

Gallaf vy – I can

Gyllyth ta / Gylta – you can

Gyll ev – he can

Gyll hy – she can

Gyllyn ny – we can

Gyllowgh why – you can

Gyllons y – they can

Gallos – using personal pronouns

Me a yll – I can

Te a yll – you can

Ev a yll – he can

Hy a yll – she can

Ny a yll – we can

Why a yll – you can

Y a yll – they can

Note: the “a” particle creates a second/soft mutation and the “g” is removed

When using the verbs in question form the paradigm of the verb is used e.g.

A wrav vy – do I?

A vydnys ta – do you want/wish?

A yllyn ny – can we

Note; the 2nd mutation is still applied after “A”

In this case Yes and No are:

Gwra – Yes

Na wra – no

Gyll – Yes

Na yll - No



It is important to remember that the present/future tense of “Gwil and Mydnas” is usually used with a future meaning and therefore in most cases the following meanings apply:

Me a wra kerdhes – I will walk ( I will do)

Te a wra neyja – you will swim (You will do)

Me a vydn kerdhes – I will walk (I will want to)

Te a vydn neyja – I will swim (I will want)

So if you wish to use “Gwil or Mydnas” in the present tense, it is in the form of a statement for example:

“I do walk” is actually expressed as “I be walking (I am walking)” as in Sawsnek, and therefore as it is “continuous” you use the long form present tense of “Bos” plus adding “ow or owth (if before a vowel or Y) before a verb to create the “ing” sound.

Bos – longform

Esof vy – I be

Esos ta/Esta – you be

Eus ev – he be

Eus hy – she be

Eson ny – we be

Esowgh why – you be

Usons y – they be

Remember when using a statement “Yth / Yma” comes before the helper verb, so I am walking would be;

Yth esof vy ow kerdhes

Another important point to remember is that “ow or owth” creates a 4th mutation which changes the intial letter/letters of the following verb as follows

B > P

D > T

G > C or K


So to say “I am eating” would be:

Yth esof vy ow tebry  (I be eating)

Note the change from “d” to “t” in the use of “debry – to eat” following “ow” to create eating in the present tense

However, “I will eat” would be:

Me a wra debry – I will (do) eat

Me a vydn debry – I will (wish to) eat


Here are some examples of how verbs are affected by the use of “ow”

Debry (to eat) – ow tebry (eating)

Dos (to come) – ow tos (coming)

Gweles (to see) – ow qweles (seeing)

Redya (to read) – ow redya (reading)

Scrifa (to right) – ow scrifa (writing)

Ola (to cry) – owth ola (crying)

Sedha (to sit) – ow sedha (sitting)

Bewa (to live) – ow pewa (living)

Trega (to dwell) – ow trega (dwelling)

Godra (to milk) – ow codra (milking)

Desky (to learn) – ow tesky (learning)


How to say “to want to”

In Kernowek to say “I want to” you can use “garsa” which is a form of “cara – to love or to like” to make the sentence, along with personal pronouns, for example “I want to eat” would be;

Me a garsa debry

Note; this is 3rd person conditional singular of “cara” which is “carsa” but the “a” particle creates a 2nd mutation from “c > g”

Me a garsa debry – I want to eat

Te a garsa neyja – You want to swim

Ev a garsa marhogeth – He wants to ride

Hy a garsa redya – She wants to read

Ny a garsa mos – We want to go

Why a garsa dos – You want to come

Y a garsa eva – They want to drink

More about Helper Verbs

Auxilary or Helper verbs

Kernowek has four main auxiliary or helper verbs, which are used mainly linked to other verbs to establish “tense”

They are;

Bos – to be

Gwil – to do or to make

Mydnes – to will or to wish

Gallos – to be able

The verbs Gwil, Mydnes and Gallos can be used with personal pronouns;

Me – me

Te – you (singular)

Ev – he

Hy – she

Ny – we

Why – you (plural or polite)

Y – they

When using verbs in this way the “Third Person Singular” of the verbs is used whichever personal pronoun is required, and creates a second mutation in respect of the following verb, by the inclusion of the “a” particle.

It should be noted at this point that Gwil and Mydnes are usually used to create a future tense.

This gives us;

Gwil – 3rd person singular Gwra

Me a wra – I will

Te a wra – you will

Ev a wra – he will

Hy a wra – she will

Ny a wra – we will

Why a wra – you will

Y a wra – they will

Mydnes – 3rd person singular Mydn

Me a vydn – I will

Te a vydn – you will (singular)

Ev a vydn – he will

Hy a vydn – she will

Ny a vydn – we will

Why a vydn – you will (plural or polite)

Y a vydn – they will

You will notice in this form both Gwil and Mydnes are used for “will”. These forms of expressing “will” are used as a matter of choice. I have discussed this and received the following advice:

“Choice of future construction is all quite flexible – there are style considerations, and some individuals just have their own personal preferences. It is a mistake to match the Cornish options with English options – there is no direct correspondence.”

Gallos – 3rd person singular Gyll

Me a yll – I can

Te a yll – you can (singular)

Ev a yll – he can

Hy a yll – she can

Ny a yll – we can

Why a yll – you can (plural or polite)

Y a yll – they can

Below are some examples using these verb constructions in simple sentences:


Redya – to read

Neyja – to swim

Eva – to eat

Debry – to drink

Kerdhes - to walk

Me a wra redya – I will read

Te a vydn redya – You will read

Ev a yll redya – He can read

Hy a wra neyja – She will swim

Ny a vydn neyja – We will swim

Why a yll neyja – You can swim

Y a wra eva – They will drink

Me a vydn eva – I will drink

Te a yll eva – You can drink

Ev a wra debry – He will eat

Hy a vydn debry – She will eat

Ny a yll debry – We can eat

Why a wra kerdhes – You will walk

Y a vydn kerdhes – They will walk

Me a yll kerdhes – I can walk

Sometimes however you wish to express the action in the present tense, so as in Sawnek you need to add a continuous element for example if you continue to read you are reading and adjustments in Kernowek need to be made to encompass the “ing” element in the present tense.

The verb to be used in this case is the long form of Bos (to be) as below;

Yth esof vy – I am

Yth esta – you are

Yma ev – he is

Yma hy – she is

Yth eson ny – we

Yth esowgh why – you are

Ymowns y – they are

You will notice the prefixes “Yth, Yma and Ymowns” are used which are from the “Y” particle which becomes “Yth” before (a, e, i, o, u and y) “Yma” before ev (he) and hy(she), finally Ymowns before “Y”(they). These particles indicate that a positive statement is being made.

To establish the Sawsnek (English) “ing” on the end of the following verb, the second verb is prefixed by “ow” or “owth (before a, e, i, o, u and y)

It is important to remember that “ow” or “owth” create a 4th mutation in the following word.

The fourth (4th) mutation affects the following letters;

B changes to P

D changes to T

G changes to C or K

Gw changes to QW

It may help some of you to remember that this is in fact a reversal of the mutation changes in the 2nd mutation.

It should be noted that the 4th mutation does not have the masculine and feminine rules applied to the 2nd Mutation, and so if the following word begins with one of the above four letters or combination of letters it will mutate.

Here are some examples;

Yth esof vy ow redya – I am reading (no mutation)

Yth esta ow tebry – You are eating (d in debry mutates to t for tebry)

Yma ev ow qweles – He is seeing (gw in gweles mutates to qw for qweles)

Yma hy ow marhogeth – She is riding (no mutation)

Yth eson ny ow cusca – We are sleeping (no mutation)

Yth esowgh why ow tancya – we are dancing (d in dancya mutates to t for tancya)

Ymowns y ow prosya – they are embroidering (b in brosya mutates to p in prosya)

Question Form of Long Form Bos;

To change long form Bos to a question you remove “Yth” from the present tense for, howver “Yma” and “Ymowns” change to “Usy” and “Usons” as follows

Essof ve ow redya? – Am I reading?

Esta ow tebry? – Are you eating?

Usy ev ow gweles – Is he seeing?

Usy hy ow marhogeth? – Is she riding?

Eson ny ow cuscas? – Are we sleeping?

Esowgh why ow tancya? – Are we dancing?

Usons y ow prosya? – Are they embroidering?

Note; If the subject of the sentence is not definite, “Usy” changes to” Eus”

For example

Usy an keus Kernowek ow tos? – Is the Cornish cheese coming? (definite)

Eus keus ow tos? Is there cheese coming? (indefinite)

Question form;

Gwil & Gallos

To use the question form in simple sentences, you begin the sentence with the “A” particle which establishes that what follows is a question. Remember the “A” particle still creates a second mutation in the following word.

A yll hy marhogeth an margh? – Can she ride the horse?

A wra an kyttryn mos lebmyn ? – Does the bus go now?

A yll an maw gweles an vowes? – Can the boy see the girl?

A wra an scath golyow war an mor? – Does the boat sale on the sea?

The form of the question when using me, te, ny, why and y is slightly different and we will look at this later in the course,

Verbal Paradigms - Bos

  Verbal Paradigm – BOS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

Kernowek Standard and UCR

Simple Present

O’vy / oma    Of ve – I am                    

Os ta             Os ta – you are              

Yw ev           Yw ef – he is.                  

Yw hy            Yw hy – she is.               

On ny           On ny – we are.            

Owgh why   Ough why – you are     

Yns Y             Ynjy – they are.            

Long Form Present

Yth esof vy              Theraf ve – I am                     

Yth esos ta              Th'esta – You are.              

Yma ev               Thera ef – He is.                     

Yma hy               Thera hy – She is.                   

Yth eson ny             Th'eron ny – We are.             

Yth esowgh why     Th'erowgh why – You are.     

Ymowns y          mowns y / ma anjy = They are.      

Short form Imperfect

En vy                     En ve – I was.                         

Es ta                      Es ta – You were.                  

O ev                      O ef – He was.                       

O hy                      O hy – She was.                     

En ny                     En ny – We were.                  

Ewgh why            Eugh why – You were.          

Ȇns y                     Ens ynjy – They were.           

Long Form Imperfect

Yth esen vy               Thejen ve – I was.                        

Yth eses ta                Theros ta – You were.                 

Yth esa ef                  Theja ef – He was.                       

Yth esa hy                 Theja hy – She was.                     

Yth esen ny               Thejen ny – We were.                 

Yth esewgh why      Thejeugh why – You were          

Yth esens y               Thesens ynjy – They were.        


Bedha' vy                Bedhaf ve -  I will be       

Bedhys ta                Bedhys ta – You will be  

Bёdh ef                    Bedh ef -  He will be        

Bёdh hy                   Bedh hy -  She will be      

Bedhyn ny               Bedhyn ny – We will be  

Bedhowgh why      Bedhough why – You will be   

Bedhons y               Bedhons ynjy – They will be 

Past Habitual

Bedhen vy                 Bedhen ve – I always used to be 

Bedhes ta                  Bedhes ta – You always used to be  

Bedha ev                   Bedha ef – He always used to be   

Bedha hy                   Bedha hy – She always used to   

Bedhen ny                 Bedhen ny – We always used to   

Bedhewgh why         Bedheugh why – You always used to   

Bedhens y                  Bedhens ynjy (y) – They always used to  


Beu' ve             Buef ve – I was   

Beusta              Bues ta – You were  

Beu ev               Bue ef – He was  

Beu hy               Bue hy – She was  

Beun ny             Buen ny – We were  

Bewgh / why be'why      Beugh why – You were  

Bowns y             Bons ynjy – They were  


Bien ve               Byen ve – I could be          

Bies ta                 Byes ta - You could be     

Bia ev                  Bya ef – He could be         

Bia hy                  Bya hy – She could be    

Bien ny                Byen ny – We could be   

Biowgh why / bie'why       Byeugh why – You could be  

Biens y                Byens ynjy – They could be   


Ben ve – I may/might be       

Bes ta – You may/might be  

Be ef(ev) – He may/might be     

Be hy – She may be              

Ben ny – We may be            

Beugh why – You may/might  

Bens y(ynjy) – They may/might  

Moy Adro Bos

Moy Adro Bos

Below is a table of “Bos” or “to be” in present tense with some examples of its use:

Of vy – I am (I be)

Os ta – you are / thou are (you be)

Yw ev – He is (he be)

Yw hy – She is (she be)

On ny – We are (we be)

Owgh why – We are (we be)

Yns y – They are (they be)

When using “Bos” in this form to make a statement or answer a question in the positive the verb will follow the object e.g.

Lowen ov vy – happy I be (I am happy)

Trist os ta – sad you be (You are sad)

Crev yw ev – strong he be (He is strong)

Teg yw hy – nice she be (She is nice)

Cowetha on ny – Friends we be (We are friends)

Pùscadoryon owgh why – Fishermen you be (You are fisherman)

Tus ha benenes yns y – Men and women they be (They are men and women

Note: it is useful when learning Kernowek to think of things in terms of “be” for example “I be” rather than “I am” as this will remind you that you should be using “Bos”.

By placing “Bos” before the object you create a question form rather than positive statement:

Os ta trist? – Be you sad? (Are you sad?)

Yw hy teg? – Be she nice? (Is she nice?)

Owgh why Pùscadoryon? – Be you fishermen? (Are you fishermen?)

You can also use “Bos” with personal pronouns:

Me – me

Te – you

Ev – he

Hy – she

Ny – we

Why – you

Y – they

Note: When you use verbs with personal pronouns you use only the “Third Person Singular” of the verb, even for plural subjects.

For example, some of the third person singulars of “Bos” are as listed below:

Yw – present (am)

O – past (was)

Vedh – future (will be)

There are other tenses of “Bos” but we will only use those above for this exampleRemember the above rule applies when using any verbs with personal pronouns.


Me yw lowen – I am happy

Te o trist – You were sad

Ev a vedh crev – He will be strong

When you are comfortable with this construction you can create other types of questions using “Pёth” (What) and “Pyw” (Who) as below:

Remember as words in Kernowek are masculine (Gorow) or Female (Benow) “ev and hy” can not only refer to people but also things, depending on whether the thing in question is masculine or feminine, so can be “it”

Pёth yw ev? (What is He?) – Maw yw ev (He is a boy)

Pёth yw ev? (What is it?) – Lyver yw ev (It is a book)

Pёth yw hy? (What is she?) – Mowes yw hy (She is a girl)

Pёth yw hy? (What is it?) – Pluven yw hy (A pen it is)


Me yw lowen – I am happy

Te o trist – You were sad

Ev a vedh crev – He will be strong

When you are comfortable with this construction you can create other types of questions using “Pёth” (What) and “Pyw” (Who) as below:

Remember as words in Kernowek are masculine (Gorow) or Female (Benow) “ev and hy” can not only refer to people but also things, depending on whether the thing in question is masculine or feminine, so can be “it”

Pёth yw ev? (What is He?) – Maw yw ev (He is a boy)

Pёth yw ev? (What is it?) – Lyver yw ev (It is a book)

Pёth yw hy? (What is she?) – Mowes yw hy (She is a girl)

Pёth yw hy? (What is it?) – Pluven yw hy (A pen it is)

Pyw yw ev? (Who is he?) – Wella yw ev (He is Wella)

Pyw owgh why? (Who are you?) – Pùscadoryon on ny (Fishermen are we)

Remember when answering questions, it is necessary to change the person in some cases when answering for example “Who are you – pyw os ta?” should be answered “Peter I am – Pedr of vy”. This will also apply for “you” and “we” in the same way.

Uses of Bos

Uses of “Bos”

The indicator in Cornish as to whether a sentence is a question or a statement when using short form “Bos” is the position of the verb, remember “Bos” is an auxiliary or helper verb and used to indicate who is being discussed and also the tense,

Bos short form present tense

If it comes before the subject/verb it is a question;

Os ta Lowen – Be you happy (Are you happy)

If it follows the subject/verb it is a statement;

Lowen ov vy – Happy I be (I am happy)

Remember when using question form if you are asking a question you may have to switch the person to answer, for example in English if you ask,” are you wet” (glёb) the answer would be “I am wet”. In the same way if you were asking about “you” plural the answer would be, “we are wet”

In Cornish this would be

Os ta glёb? – Be you wet?

Glёb ov vy – I be wet


Owgh why glёb? – Be you wet?

Glёb on ny – We be wet

If you wished to add “yes” or “no to your answer you use the question to say yes or no.

So in the examples above to add yes you would say;

Ov,glёb ov vy – Yes, wet I be (yes, I am wet)

On, glёb on ny – Yes, wet we be (Yes, we are wet)

If you wished to answer the question in the negative you use the question plus "Nag ..., Nyns ..."

“Nag ov, nyns ov vy ” is used, and this means;

Nag ov– no

Nyns ov vy – not I be

In this context these are always used together for example;

Nag ov, nyns ov vy glёb – No not I be wet (No, I am not wet)

Nag on, nyns on ny glёb – No not we be wet (No, we are not wet)

Full examples:

Ov, glёb ov vy – Yes, I be wet

Os, glёb osta – Yes, you be wet

Yw, glёb yw ev – Yes, he be wet

Yw, glёb yw hy – Yes, she be wet

On, glёb on ny – We be wet

Owgh, glёb owgh we – Yes, you be wet

Yns,glёb yns y – Yes, they be wet

Nag ov, nyns ov vy glёb – No, not I be wet

Nag os, nyns os ta glёb – No. not you be wet

Nag yw, nyns yw ev glёb – No, not he be wet

Nag yw, nyns yw hy glёb – No not she be wet

Nag on, nyns on ny glёb – No, not we be wet

Nag owgh, nyns owgh why glёb – No, not you be wet

Nag yns, nyns yns y glёb – No, not be they wet

Therefore bearing mind these principles the translations for page 15 are as follows;

Den ov vy – I be a man

Benyn osta – You be a woman

Maw yw ev – He be a boy

Mowes yw hy – Girl she be

Den ha benyn on ny – Man and woman we be

Maw ha mowes owgh why – Boy and girl yw be

Mowes ha maw yns hy – Girl and boy be they

If you wished to make these questions you would move ov vy, os ta etc to before Den Benyn etc.

Note you do not use personal pronouns e.g. Me, Te, Ev, Hy, Ny, Why and Y with shotform present Bos .

If you wished to extend your answer to the question above

Os ta glёb?

You could combine the elements by saying;

Nag ov, nyns ov vy glёb, sёgh ov vy

No not I be wet, dry I be

Verbal Paradigms

Kernowek Standard Verbal Paradigms

Gallos – to be able

Care, no preterite verb for Gallos is attested in foundation texts

Present Future


I can

gyllyth, gyllysta, gylta

You can

gyll, (gyllvyth (future only))

He can

gyll   (gyllvyth (future only))

She can


We can


You can (plural, polite)


They can



I was able


You were able


He was able


She was able


We were able


You were able


They were able



I may be able

galles, gylly

You may be able


He may be able


She may be able


We may be able


You may be able


They may be able


galsen, galjen

I could/would be able

galses, galjes

You could/would be able

galsa, galja

He could/would be able

galsa, galja

She could/would be able

galsen, galjen

We could/would be able

galsewgh, galjewgh

You could/would be able

galsens, galjens

They could/would be able

Gwil, Gul – to do or make

Present Future

gwrav, gwrama

I / I will do or make

gwres, gwreth, gwreta

You / you will do or make


He/ he will do or make


She/ she will do or make


We/ we will do or make


You/ you will do or make


They/ they will do or make



I did or made


You did or made


He did or made


She did or made


We did or made


You did or made


They did or made


gwrug, gwrugaf

I did or made

gwrussys gwrusta

You did or made

gwrug, gwras

He did or made

gwrug, gwras

She did or made


We did or made

gwrussough, Gwrugough why

You did or made

gwrussons, gwrug anjy

They did or made



I could/would do or make


You could/would do or make


He could/ would do or make


She could/would do or make


We could/would do or make


You could/would do or make


They could/would do or make



You do/make!


He must do or make!


She must Do or make


We must do or make


You must do or make


They must do or make

Mydnas, Mednas – to wish or to want

Present Future

manaf, madnaf, mydnaf

I wish/want

mydnys, mynta, menta

You wish/want

mydn, medn

He wishes/wants

mydn, medn

She wishes/wants

mydnyn, mednyn

We wish/want

mydnowgh, mednowgh

You wish/want

mydnons, mednons

They wish/want


mydn, mednen

I wished/wanted

mydnes, mednes

You wished/wanted

mydna, medna

He wished/wanted

mydna, medna

She wished/wanted

mydnen, mednen

We wished/wanted

mydnewgh, mednewgh

You wished/wanted

mydnens, mednens

They wished/wanted



I wished/wanted


You wished/wanted

mydnas, medna

He wished/wanted

mydnas, medna

She wished/wanted

mydnen, mednen

We wished/wanted

mydnewgh, mensewgh

You wished/wanted

mydnens, mednens

They wished/wanted


meden, mydnyf

I may wish/want

mednes, mynhy

You may wish/want

mydna, mynho

He may wish/want

mydna, mynho

She may wish/want


We may wish/want


You may wish/want


They may wish/want


mensen, menjen

I could/would wish/want

menses, menjes

You could/would wish/want

mensa, menja

He could/would wish/want

mensa, menja

She could/would wish/want

mensen, menjen

We could/would wish/want

mensewgh, menjewgh

You could/would/wish/want

mensens, menjens

They could/would wish/want

Mos, mones – to go

Present Future

av, ama

I go, I will go


You go, you will go


He goes, he will go


She goes, she will go


We go, we will go


You go, you will go


They go, they will go



I went


You went


He went


She went


We went


You went


They went



I went


You went


He went


She went


We went


You went


They went


ellen, yllyf

I may go

elles, ylly

You may go


He may go


She may go


We may go


You may go


They may go

Conditional of this verb is not attested in foundation texts


You must go


He must go


She must go


We must go

Ewgh, kewgh

You must go


They must go

Dos, Dones – to come

Present Future

deuv,dov,deuma, deuaf

I come, I will come

deth.deta, deuves

You come, You will come


He comes, He will come


She comes, She will come


We come, We will come


You come, You will come


They come, They will come



I came


You came


He came


She came


We came


You came


They came


deffen, dyffyf

I may come

deffes, dyffy

You may come

deffa, deffo

He may come

deffa, deffo

She may come


We may come


You may come


They may come



I would/could come


You would/could come


He would/could come


She would/could come


We would/could come


You would/could come


They would/could come


deus, des

You must come


He must come


She must come


We must come


You must come


They must come

There is no attested imperfect for the verb Dos

How to say "This" and "That"

This and That


To express an object as “This” we need to put “an” before the object and “ma” after. For example:

Maw – a boy, is amended to “an maw ma” which makes the phrase “this boy”

Benyn – a woman, is amended to “an venyn ma” which makes the phrase “this woman” Note in this case “Benyn” is feminine (benow) and “an” creates a soft mutation and so becomes “an venyn”


To express an object as “That” we need to put “an” before the object and “na” after, For example:

Gwely – a bed, is amended to “an gwely na” which makes the phrase “that bed”

Pluven – a pen, is amended to “an bluven na” which makes the phrase “that pen” Note again in this case Pluven is feminine (benow) and singular and “an” before it creates a soft mutation and so becomes “bluven”

Examplys Moy ( more examples):

Tesen (f) – a cake – an desen ma – This cake

Den (m) – a man – an den ma – This man

Chycock (f) – a house martin – an jycock ma – This house martin

Gool (m) – a sail – an gool ma – This sail


Qwylkyn (m) – a frog – an qwylkyn na – That frog

Gwelen (f) – a stick – an welen na – That stick

Pons (m) – a bridge – an pons na – That bridge

Davas (f) – a sheep – an dhavas na – That sheep

Soft Mutations:

























Ûsya - use

Ûsya – use

In Kernowek if we wish to speak about a repeated action in the past, similarly to English we can use the word “ûsya” which means use.

Therefore if we wish to say “You used to go to school there” we can say “Te a wrug ûsya mos dhe scol ena”

This form can be used with all pronouns as follows:

Me a wrug ûsya – I used to

Te a wrug ûsya – You used to

Ev a wrug ûsya – He used to

Hy a wrug ûsya – She used to

Ny a wrug ûsya – We used to

Why a wrug ûsya – We used to

Y a wrug ûsya – They used to


Me a wrug ûsya neyja obma

Te a wrug ûsya ponya pub dedh

Ev a wrug ûsya redya war nosow gwȃv

Hy a wrug ûsya cana i’n eglos pùppres

Ny a wrug ûsya marhogeth warbarth war de Sul

Why a wrug ûsya cȏwsel moy war’n pellgowsor

Y a wrug ûsya debry ryb an derowen na

Remember however if you wish to say “I always used to be” rather than “used to do” you would use the “Past habitual” form of the verb “Bos”. You can use third person singular with pronouns;

Me a vedha lowen i’n Kernow in hȃv

I used to be happy in Cornwall in summer

Days, Months, Dates, Seasons

Days of the Week

de Lun

de Merth

de Merher

de Yow

de Gwener

de Sadorn

de Sul

Months  of the Year

mis Genver

mis Whevrel

mis merth

mis Ebril

mis Mȇ

Methven, mis Efen

mis Gortheren

mis Est

mis Gwydngala

mis Hedra

mis Du

mis Kevardhu

Ordinal Numbers

1st  kensa

2nd  secùnd, nessa

3rd  tressa

4th  peswora

5th  pympes

6th  whegves

7th  seythves

8th  ethves

9th  nawves

10th  degves

11th  unegves

12th  dewdhegves

13th  tredhegves

14th  peswardhegves

15th  pymthegves

16th  whȇteves

17th  seytegves

18th  ȇtegves

19th  nawnjegves

20th  ugansves

21st  kensa warn ugans

22nd  secund warn ugans

30th  degves warn ugans

40th  dew ugansves

50th  hanter-cansves

60th  try ugansves

70th  deg ha try ugansves

100th cansves

1000th  milves

100,000th  milvilves


Gwaynten – Spring

Hȃv – Summer

Kyndnaf – Autumn

Gwȃv - Winter



1  onen / Udn

2  dew2, dyw2 (F)

3  try3, teyr3 (F)

4  peswar, peder (F)

5  pymp

6  whegh

7  seyth

8  eth

9  naw

10  deg

11  udnek

12  dewdhek

13  tredhek

14  peswardhek

15  pymthek

16  whȇtek

17  seytek

18  ȇtek

19  nawnjeck

20  ugans

21  onen warn ugans

30  deg warn ugans

31  udnek warn ugans

40  dewgans

41 onen ha dew ugans

50 hanter-cans

51 udnek ha dew ugans

60 try ugans

61 onen ha try ugans

70 deg ha try ugans

71 udnek ha try ugans

80  peswar ugans

81 onen ha peswar ugans

90  deg ha peswar ugans

91  udnek ha peswar ugans

100  cans

101 cans hag onen

120  whegh ugans

130  deg ha whegh ugans

140  seyth ugans

150  cans ha hanter-cans

160  eth ugans

170  deg hag eth ugans

180 naw ugans

200  dew cans

1000  mil

100,000  milvil

Important things to remember:

  • When using numbers in Kernowek, it does not matter how many of the objects there are, the objects are always expressed in singular and not plural form, for example the plural of “ky” (dog) is “keun” (dogs), however 10 dogs are expressed as “deg ky” (10 dog) and never “deg keun”.You would say “an keun an re na” for those dogs.

  • Numbers in Kernowek unlike in Sowsnek are expressed in multiples of twenty. For example, 20 is “ugans”, 40 is “dew ugans” (two twenties), 60 is “try ugans”, 80 is “peswar ugans” etc. Numbers between 20 and 40 are counted as “warn ugans” (on twenty) for example 25 is “pymp warn ugans” (5 on twenty) and 35 as “pympthek warn ugans” (15 on twenty). After forty numbers are expressed as “ha dewgans” for example 45 is “pymp ha dew ugans” (5 and two twenties) ,55 is “pympthek ha dew ugans” (fifteen and two twenties), 65 is “pymp ha try ugans” (five and three twenties) and 75 is “pympthek ha try ugans” (fifteen and three twenties) etc.

  • "Onen" is used when counting and "Udn" when it comes before a noun. "Udn" creates a soft/second mutation when followed by a feminine  noun

  • Numbers 2,3 and 4 in Kernowek have a masculine (Gorow) and feminine (Benow) version, and conform to whether the object is masculine or feminine. Two is either Dew (gorow) or Dyw (benow), Three is either Try (gorow) or Teyr (benow), Four is Peswar (gorow) or Peder (benow). 

  • The feminine and masculine versions of “two”  create a soft/second mutation (in line with the normal rules) for example "Dyw pluven" or "Dew vebyon"

  • The feminine and masculine versions of "three" create a "third" mutation for example "Teyr fluven" 

  • The feminine versions are only used in front of a noun. When the numeral is used alone, even if it refers to a feminine, the masculine form is used.

Mutation Rules





































































First State or Radical

The first state is where the original word remains unmodified in its form

Rules for States 2, 3, 4 and 5

State 2 (The Soft Mutation) - Lenition

Previously we have looked at the soft mutation (State 2). This applies to words following a feminine noun (benyndha “a good woman”), feminine nouns after “an” (the definite article) (an2 venyn “ the woman”) and plural masculine nouns relating to people (tusgref “ strong people”).

In addition we notice that “un” (one) (un2 venyn “one woman”) and “dew” (two) (dewdhen “two men”) also mutate the following word if it is feminine singular  or masculine plural relating to people. 

Some particles also cause a state 2 mutation e.g. (my awelas “I see” or my na2 welas “I do not see”)

Some other words, particularly pronouns “dha” (your) (dha2 jy “your house”) and “y” (his) (y2 gath “his cat”) cause a soft mutation, as do some prepositions such as “a” “of” “war” “dhe” “heb”.

Finally Pajer (four) has the feminine form Peder to be used with feminine nouns, and Mil (1,000) causes a soft mutation

So, in summary State 2 occurs

·        After “an” for feminine singular nouns and masculine plural relating to people ( which makes the “Soft Mutation” the odd man out as gender can make a difference as to whether mutations are applied.

·        After some particles (a, ny, na)

·        After possessive pronouns (dha & y)

·        After important functional words (mainly prepositions)

·        In numbers un2, dew2, and mil2 causing a following mutation


State 3 – Aspirate

This mainly happens:

·        After the possessive pronouns ow3 (my), hy3 (hers) and aga3 (theirs)

·        After tri3 and teyr3 (masculine and feminine forms of three)

This mutation is independent of gender of any nouns involved


State 4 – Hard 

Mostly you will find this mutation in secondary clauses after mar “if” and the present participle “ow” ( -ing) “owqwil” (doing), “owcolhy” (washing)

This mutation is independent of gender of any nouns involved


State 5 – Mixed 

This occurs after “yn” the adverbial particle meaning “-ly” “yn tyen” (completely) “yn teffri” (really), and after the verbal particle “y” (that) “my a2 welas y teth ef” (I saw that he had come)

This mutation is independent of gender of any nouns involved.













































Questions & Answers

Govyn - Question

Pёth yw? - What is it?

Pёth yw hedna? - What is that? (M)

Pёth yw hobma? - What is this? (F)

Pёth yw an re ma? - What are these?

Pёth yw an re na? - What are those?

Fatla genes? - How is it with you?

Yw hebma ...........? (M) - is this a ....... ?

Yw hobma ......... ? (F) - is this a ......... ?

Yw hedna ........ ? (M) - is that a .........?

Yw hodna ........ ? (F) - is that a .......... ?

Gorthyp - Answer

Pluven yw - it is a pen

Hēn yw car - that is a car

Hōm yw lyver - that is a book

Kertys yw an re ma - these are lorries

Gweliow yw an re na - those are beds

Dȃ lowr ov vy - I am ok

Hēm yw den - this is a man

Hōm yw an vordh - this is the road

Hēn yw den - that is a man

Hōm yw an vordh - that is the road

Govynadow sempel - Simple questions:


Pёth yw? – What is it?

To answer you identify the object followed by “yw” (it be)

Cath yw – a cat it is

Gwely yw – a bed it is


 Yw cath? – is it a cat?

Yw, cath yw – Yes, it is a cat

Yw gwely? – Is it a bed

Yw, gwely yw – Yes, it is a bed

Remember if “Yw” is before the object (Yw cath?) it is always a question, if it comes after the object (Cath yw) it is a statement. In the answers above the first “Yw” only means yes.


If you want to answer the question in the negative the main phrase to remember is –

Nag yw, nyns yw – No, it is not


Nag yw nyns yw cath, gwely yw – no it is not a cat it is a bed

“Nag yw, nyns yw” is important to remember as it is used in many negative answers.


What is this?

Pёth yw hobma? – What is this? (female object)

Hom yw cath – this is a cat or Cath yw hobma – a cat this is

Pёth yw hebma? – What is that? (male object)

Hem yw gwely – This is a bed or Gwely yw hebma – a bed is this

Remember if you are unsure if the object is male or female use the male form as more Cornish words are male.

Yw hebma gwely? – Is this a bed

Yw, gwely yw hebma – Yes, this is a bed

Nag yw, nyns yw hebma gwely – No, this is not a bed

Yw hobma cath? – Is this a cat

Yw, cath yw hobma – Yes, this is a cat

Nag yw, nyns yw hobma cath – No, this is not a cat


What is that?

Pёth yw hodna? – What is that? (female object)

Hon yw cath – That is a cat or Cath yw hodna – a cat that is

Nag yw, nyns yw hodna cath – No, that is not a cat

Pёth yw hedna? – What is that? (male object)

Hen yw gwely – That is a bed or Gwely yw hedna – a bed that is

Nag yw, nyns yw gwely – No, that is not a bed

Yw hodna cath? – Is that a cat

Yw, cath yw hodna or Yw, hon yw cath – Yes, that is a cat

Nag yw, nyns yw hodna cath – No, that is not a cat

Yw hedna gwely? – Is that a bed?

Yw, gwely yw hedna  or Yw, hen yw gwelly– Yes, that is a bed

Nag yw, nyns yw hedna gwely – No, that is not a bed

Patronys a Gescows





Present                                                                 Present

Osta ...?                                                                 Are you ...?

Ov, ... ov vy                                                           Yes, I am ...

Nag ov, nyns ov vy ...                                        No, I am not ...


Esta ...?                                                                 Are you ...? (in a place)

Eso’, th’eso’vy ...                                                Yes, I am ... (in a place)

Nag eso’, nyns eso’vy ...                                  No, I am not ... (in a place)


Termyn eus passys                                            Past

Es jy ...?                                                                 Were you ...?

En, ... en vy                                                           Yes, I was ...

Nag en, nyns en vy ...                                       No, I was not ...

Eses jy ...?                                                             Were you ...? (in a place)

Esen, th’esen vy ...                                             Yes, I was ... (in a place)

Nag esen, nyns esen vy ...                               No, I was not ... (in a place)

A veusta ...?                                                         Have you been ...?

Beuv, me re beu ...                                             Yes, I have been ...

Na veuv, ny veu’vy ...                                        No, I have not been ...

A veusta ...?                                                         Had you been ...?

Beuv, me a veu (y feuma) ...                           Yes, I had been ...

Na veuv, ny veu’vy ...                                        No, I had not been ...


Termyn a dheu                                                   Future

A vedhys jy ...?                                                       Will you be ...?

Bedha’, me a vëdh (y fedhama) ...                Yes, I will be ...

Na vedha’, ny vedha’vy ...                                 No, I will not be ...

Amser ambosek                                                 Conditional

A vies jy ...?                                                            Would you be ...?

Bien, me a via (y fien vy) ...                             Yes, I would be ...

Na vien, ny vien vy ...                                         No, I would not be ...






Gwil nampyth (oll gans verb-hanow)

Present                                                   Present

Esta ow4 ....?                                           Are you ...?

                                                                       Do you ...?

Eso’, th’eso’vy ow4 ...                            Yes, I am ...

                                                                       Yes, I do ...

Nag eso’, nyns eso’vy ow4 ...              No, I am not ...

                                                                       No, I do not ...

Termys eus passys                                  Past

Esen vy ow4 ...?                                       Were you ...?

Esen, th’esen vy ow4 ...                          Yes, I was ...

Nag esen, nyns esen vy ow4 ...           No, I was not ...

A wrusta ...?                                            Did you ...?

                                                                      Have you ...?

Gwrug, me a wrug ...                            Yes, I did ...

Gwrug, my re wrug ...                           Yes, I have ...

Na wrug, ny wrug avy ...                      No, I did not ...

                                                                       No, I have not ...

Termyn a dheu                                       Future

A vynta ...?

A wrêta ...?                                              Will you ...?

A vedhys jy ow4 ...?

Mydna’, me a vydn ...

Gwrav, me a wra ...                                 Yes, I will ...

Bedha’, me a vëdh

(y fedhama) ow4 ...

Na vydna’, ny vydna’vy ...

Na wrav, ny wra’vy ...                             No, I won’t ...

Na vedha’, ny vedha’vy ow4 ...





Present                                                                 Present

O’why ...?                                                             Are you ...?

On, ... on ny                                                         Yes, we are ...

Nag on, nyns on ny ...                                     No, we are not ...


Eso’why ...?                                                          Are you ...? (in a place)

Eson, th’eson ny ...                                            Yes, we are ... (in a place)

Nag eson, nyns eson ny ...                             No, we are not ... (in a place)


Termyn eus passys                                            Past

E’why ...?                                                              Were you ...?

En, ... en ny                                                          Yes, we were ...

Nag en, nyns en ny ...                                       No, we were not ...

Ese’why ...?                                                          Were you ...? (in a place)

Esen, th’esen ny ...                                            Yes, we were ... (in a place)

Nag esen, nyns esen ny ...                              No, we were not ... (in a place)

A ve’why ...?                                                        Have you been ...?

Beun, ny re beu ...                                              Yes, we have been ...

Na veun, ny veun ny ...                                     No, we have not been ...

A ve’why ...?                                                        Had you been ...?

Beun, ny a veu (y feun ny) ...                        Yes, we had been ...

Na veun, ny veun ny ...                                    No, we had not been ...


Termyn a dheu                                                   Future

A vedho’why ...?                                                Will you be ...?

Bedhyn, ny a vëdh (y fedhyn ny) ...            Yes, we will be ...

Na vedhyn, ny vedhyn ny ...                           No, we will not be ...

Amser ambosek                                                 Conditional

A vie’why ...?                                                       Would you be ...?

Bien, ny a via (y fien ny) ...                             Yes, we would be ...

Na vien, ny vien ny ...                                       No, we would not be ...






Gwil nampyth (oll gans verb-hanow)

Present                                                   Present

Eso’why ow4 ....?                                     Are you ...?

                                                                        Do you ...?

Eson, th’eson ny ow4 ...                         Yes, we are ...

                                                                        Yes, we do ...

Nag eson, nyns eson ny ow4 ...         No, we are not ...

                                                                        No, we do not ...

Termyn eus passys                                 Past

Ese’why ow4 ...?                                      Were you ...?

Esen, th’esen ny ow4 ...                         Yes, we were ...

Nag esen, nyns esen ny ow4 ...          No, we were not ...

A wrusso’why ...?                                    Did you ...?

                                                                        Have you ...?

Gwrussyn, ny a wrug ...                        Yes, we did ...

Gwrussyn, ny re wrug ...                       Yes, we have ...

Na wrussyn, ny wrussyn ny ...            No, we did not ...

                                                                        No, we have not ...

Termyn a dheu                                       Future

A vydno’why ...?

A wre’why ...?                                         Will you ...?

A vedho’why ow4 ...?

Mydnyn, ny a vydn ...

Gwren, ny a wra ...                                  Yes, we will ...

Bedhyn, ny a vëdh

(y fedhyn ny) ow4 ...

Na vydnyn, ny vydnyn ny ...

Na wren, ny wren ny ...                           No, we won’t ...

Na vedhyn, ny vedhyn ny ow4 ...





Present                                                                 Present

Yw va (hy) ...?                                                      Is he-she-it ...?

Yw, ... yw va (hy)                                                Yes, he-she-it is ...

Nag yw, nyns yw va (hy) ...                            No, he-she-it is not ...


Usy va (hy) ...?                                                    Is he-she-it ...? (in a place)

Usy, yma va (hy) ...                                           Yes, he-she-it is ... (in a place)

Nag usy, nyns usy va (hy) ...                         No, he-she-it is not ... (in a place)


Termyn eus passys                                            Past

O va (hy) ...?                                                        Was he-she-it ...?

O, ... o va (hy)                                                      Yes, he-she-it was ...

Nag o, nyns o va (hy) ...                                 No, he-she-it was not ...

Esa va (hy) ...?                                                     Was he-she-it ...? (in a place)

Esa, th’esa va (hy) ...                                         Yes, he-she-it was ... (in a place)

Nag esa, nyns esa va (hy) ...                          No, he-she-it was not ... (in a place)

A veu va (hy) ...?                                                 Has he-she-it been ...?

Beu, ev (hy) re beu ...                                        Yes, he-she-it has been ...

Na veu, ny veu va (hy) ...                                 No, he-she-it has not been ...

A veu va (hy) ...?                                                 Had he-she-it been ...?

Beu, ev (hy) a veu (y feu va / hy) ...             Yes, he-she-it I had been ...

Na veu, ny veu va (hy) ...                                  No, he-she-it had not been ...


Termyn a dheu                                                   Future

A vëdh ev (hy) ...?                                              Will he-she-it be ...?

Bëdh, ev (hy) a vëdh (y fëdh ev / hy) ...    Yes, he-she-it will be ...

Na vëdh, ny vëdh ev (hy) ...                            No, he-she-it will not be ...

Amser ambosek                                                 Conditional

A via va (hy) ...?                                                  Would he-she-it be ...?

Bia, ev (hy) a via (y fia va / hy) ...                 Yes, he-she-it would be ...

Na via, ny via va (hy) ...                                    No, he-she-it would not be ...





Gwil nampyth (oll gans verb-hanow)

Present                                                   Present

Usy va (hy) ow4 ....?                                Is he-she-it ...?

                                                                        Does he-she-it ...?

Usy, yma va (hy) ow4 ...                        Yes, he-she-it is ...

                                                                        Yes, he-she-it does ...

Nag usy, nyns usy va (hy) ow4 ...      No, he-she-it is not ...

                                                                        No, he-she-it does not ...

Termyn eus passys                                 Past

Esa va (hy) ow4 ...?                                  Was he-she-it ...?

Esa, th’esa va (hy) ow4 ...                       Yes, he-she-it was ...

Nag esa, nyns esa va (hy) ow4 ...        No, he-she-it was not ...

A wrug ev (hy) ...?                                   Did he-she-it ...?

                                                                        Has he-she-it ...?

Gwrug, ev (hy) a wrug ...                      Yes, he-she-it did ...

Gwrug, ev (hy) re wrug ...                     Yes, he-she-it has ...

Na wrug, ny wrug ev (hy) ...                 No, he-she-it did not ...

                                                                         No, he-she-it has not ...

Amser ambosek                                     Future

A vydn ev (hy)...?

A wra va (hy)...?                                      Will he-she-it ...?

A vëdh ev (hy) ow4 ...?

Mydn, ev (hy) a vydn ...

Gwra, ev (hy) a wra ...                             Yes, he-she-it will ...

Bëdh, ev (hy) a vëdh

(y fëdh ev / hy) ow4 ...

Na vydn, ny vydn ev (hy) ...

Na wra, ny wra va (hy) ...                        No, he-she-it won’t ...

Na vëdh, ny vëdh ev (hy) ow4 ...





Present                                                                 Present

Yns y ...?                                                                Are they ...?

Yns, ... yns y                                                        Yes, they are ...

Nag yns, nyns yns y ...                                     No, they are not ...


Usons y ...?                                                           Are they ...? (in a place)

Usons, ymowns y ...                                          Yes, they are ... (in a place)

Nag usons, nyns usons y ...                           No, they are not ... (in a place)


Termyn eus passys                                            Past

Êns y ...?                                                                Were they ...?

Êns, ... êns y                                                         Yes, they were ...

Nag êns, nyns êns y ...                                     No, they were not ...

Esens y ...?                                                           Were they ...? (in a place)

Esens, th’esens y ...                                           Yes, they were ... (in a place)

Nag esens, nyns esens y ...                            No, they were not ... (in a place)

A vowns y ...?                                                      Have they been ...?

Bowns, y re beu ...                                             Yes, they have been ...

Na vowns, ny vowns y ...                                No, they have not been ...

A vowns y ...?                                                      Had they been ...?

Bowns, y a veu (y fowns y) ...                       Yes, they had been ...

Na vowns, ny vowns y ...                                No, they had not been ...


Termyn a dheu                                                   Future

A vedhons y ...?                                                  Will they be ...?

Bedhons, y a vëdh (y fedhons y) ...            Yes, they will be ...

Na vedhons, ny vedhons y ...                         No, they will not be ...

Termyn ambosek                                               Conditional

A viens y ...?                                                         Would they be ...?

Biens, y a via (y fiens y) ...                                Yes, they would be ...

Na viens, ny viens y ...                                       No, they would not be ...






Gwil nampyth (oll gans verb-hanow)

Present                                                   Present

Usons y ow4 ....?                                      Are they ...?

                                                                         Do they ...?

Usons, ymowns y ow4 ...                       Yes, they are ...

                                                                        Yes, they do ...

Nag usons, nyns usons y ow4 ...       No, they are not ...

                                                                        No, they do not ...

Termyn eus passys                                 Past

Esens y ow4 ...?                                       Were they ...?

Esens, th’esens y ow4 ...                       Yes, they were ...

Nag esens, nyns esens y ow4 ...        No, they were not ...

A wrussons y ...?                                     Did they ...?

                                                                       Have they ...?

Gwrussons, y a wrug ...                       Yes, they did ...

Gwrussons, y re wrug ...                      Yes, they have ...

Na wrussons, ny wrussons y ...        No, they did not ...

                                                                        No, they have not ...

Termyn a dheu                                       Future

A vydnons y ...?

A wrowns y ...?                                        Will they ...?

A vedhons y ow4 ...?

Mydnons, y a vydn ...

Gwrowns, y a wra ...                               Yes, they will ...

Bedhons, y a vëdh

(y fedhons y) ow4 ...

Na vydnons, ny vydnons y ...

Na wrowns, ny wrowns y ...                    No, they won’t ...

Na vedhons, ny vedhons y ow4 ...




Gallos (oll gans verb-hanow)

Godhvos (gans verb-hanow = ‘know how to’)

Gallos: present                                       Can: present

A alla’vy ...?                                             Can I ...?

Gyllyth, te a yll (y hylta) ...                  Yes, you can ...

Na yllyth, ny ylta ...                               No, you cannot ...

A ylta ....?                                                Can you ...?

Galla’, me a yll  (y hallama) ...         Yes, I can ...

Na alla’, ny alla’vy ...                            No, I cannot ...

Gallos: termyn eus passys                     Can: past

A yllys jy ...?                                             Were you able to ...?

                                                                      Have you been able to ...?

Gyllyn, me a ylly (y hyllyn vy) ...        Yes, I was able to...

                                                                       Yes, I have been able to ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn vy ...                          No, I was not able to ...

                                                                      No, I have not been able to ...

Gallos: amser ambosek                         Can: conditional

A alses jy ...?                                            Would you be able to ...?

Galsen, me a alsa (y halsen vy) ...  Yes, I would be able to ...

Na alsen, ny alsen vy ...                       No, I would not be able to ...

Gallos: present                                       Know: present

A wosta?                                                 Do you know?

Gora’, me a wor                                    Yes, I know

Na wora’, ny worama (wòn)            No, I do not know

Gallos: termyn eus passys                     Know: past

A wodhyes jy?                                         Did you know?

Godhyen, me a wodhya                       Yes, I knew

Na wodhyen, ny wodhyen vy             No, I did not know




Gallos (oll gans verb-hanow)

Godhvos (gans verb-hanow = ‘know how to’)

Gallos: present                                       Can: present

A yllyn ny ...?                                              Can we ...?

Gyllowgh, why a yll (y hyllo’why) ...   Yes, you can ...

Na yllowgh, ny yllo’why ...                      No, you cannot ...

A yllo’why ....?                                         Can you ...?

Gyllyn, ny a yll (y hyllyn ny) ...           Yes, we can ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn ny ...                          No, we cannot ...

Gallos: termyn eus passys                     Can: past

A ylle’why ...?                                          Were you able to ...?

                                                                     Have you been able to ...?

Gyllyn, ny a ylly (y hyllyn ny) ...        Yes, we were able to...

                                                                     Yes, we have been able to ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn ny ...                        No, we were not able to ...

                                                                    No, we have not been able to ...

Gallos: amser ambosek                         Can: conditional

A alse’why ...?                                               Would you be able to ...?

Galsen, ny a alsa (y halsen ny) ...          Yes, we would be able to ...

Na alsen, ny alsen ny ...                             No, we would not be able to ...

Godhvos: present                                   Know: present

A wodho’why?                                        Do you know?

Godhyn, ny a wor                                  Yes, we know

Na wodhyn, ny wodhyn ny                No, we do not know

Godhvos: termyn eus passys                 Know: past

A wodhye’why?                                      Did you know?

Godhyen, ny a wodhya                       Yes, we knew

Na wodhyen, ny wodhyen ny            No, we did not know



Brȃs - Big

Bian - Small

Coth - Old

Yonk - Young

Hir - Long

Cot - short

Dȃ - Good

Drog - Bad

Tobm - Hot

Yeyn - Cold

Gorow - Masculine

Benow - Feminine

Yagh - Healthy

Clȃv - Sick

Uskys - Quick

Lent - Slow

Tus - Men

Benenes  - Women

Den - Man

Benyn - Woman

Sёgh - Dry

Glёb - Wet

Crev - Strong

Gwadn - Weak

Tew – Fat, Thick

Tanow - Thin

Saw - safe

Peryllys - Dangerous

Cales - Hard

Medhel - Soft

Cortes - Polite

Dyscortes - Rude

Maw - Boy

Mowes - Girl

Mebyon - Boys

Mowysy - Girls

Ogas - Near

Pell - far

Plos - Dirty

Glȃn - Clean

Rych - Rich

Bohosak - Poor

Uhel - High

Isel - Low

Gwag - Empty

Leun - Full

Poos - Heavy

Scav - Light

Fur - Wise

Gocky - Foolish

Wheg - Sweet

Wherow  - Bitter

Pedrak  - Square

Rȏnd - Round

Adȃl - Opposite

Ryb - Beside

Du - Black

Gwydn - White

Tewl - Dark

Spladn - Bright

Dov - Tame

Gwyls - Wild

Avȃn – Up   (position)

Awoles – Down (position)

Ȇwna - mend

Terry - Break

Bew - Alive

Marow - Dead

Disky - Undress

Gwysca - Dress

Cara - Love

Hȃtya - Hate

Kerdhes - Walk

Ponya - Run

Mos - Go

Dos - Come

Dallath - Start

Gorfedna - Finish



Stuth 30 Metheven 2020


Ian Jackson


an Army the Army, the military

an wolok dhyragon phr the outlook (for the future)

ancertuster uncertainty

anellans breathing

anhonenus adj unselfish, considerate

arbenegor m arbenegoryon expert

arfedhysogyon gorrys dhe sygerneth phr furloughed staff

arwedhyow par hag anwesva phr flu-like symptoms

asnodhow pl resources

assay cly·nycal clinical trial(s)

bohes y wovenek adj pessimistic

bos in omwith phr be shielding

bos prevys negedhek orth an vîrùs phr test negative for the virus

bos prevys po·sytyf orth an vîrùs phr test positive for the virus

bothel diogely f bothlow diogely protective bubble

bothel socyal f bothlow socyal social bubble

brâs y wovenek adj optimistic

briansen throat

cafadêwder availability

chain a brovians m chainys supply chain

chy cur m treven cur care home

clâv a’n vîrùs phr ill with the virus

clevejus adj infectious

clevejuster infectiousness

clevejy infect

clevejyans infection

cleves wheja nausea, vomiting

clojy m clojiow hospital

clot goos m clottys goos blood clot

colgh m colhow spike (in infections)

coll sens a sawor phr loss of taste and smell

comen-spyrys community spirit, neighbourliness

Covyd Nawnjek Covid-19

Cowethyans Yêhes an Bÿs The World Health Organization (WHO)

cùrunvîrùs coronavirus

cùssulyor sciensek m cùssulyoryon sciensek scientific advisor

daffar prevy testing kit

dassordya an eco·nomy phr restart the economy

dastardh m dastardhow further outbreak

degeans closure (of business etc)

derivadow pùb jorna dhe’n wask daily press briefing

dew vêter alês / an eyl orth y gela phr two metres apart

dornlien paper m dornlienyow paper tissue

dosbarthans triage

dourwith intensive care

dry in dadn rêwl phr bring under control

dryppyn m drypydnow droplet

dybreder adj unthinking, irresponsible

dyscoo·s adj vulnerable

dysêsys yw y anellans phr he has difficulty breathing

dystrybûtyans distribution (of supplies)

enesa isolate

epydemyk epidemic

epydemyth m epydemydhyon epidemiologist

erna vo clôwys nampyth ken phr until further notice, open-ended

esely an teylu pl family members, relatives

ev yw sawyes a’n vîrùs phr he has had the virus [and recovered]

ewnradna ration

fakel skevens pneumonia

fara honenblêsys complacency

fardell scodhya m fardellow scodhya support package / programme

fevyr fever, [high] temperature

fienasow pl anxiety

furvwir adj virtual

fowt cafadêwder non-availability

gallos gorotham emergency powers

golhas dêwla handwash

gorotham emergency

gorra twit phr tweet v

gorthcorf m gorthcorfow antibody

goun kyrùrjery m gonow surgical gown

gwely clojy m gweliow hospital bed

gweythor alwhedhek m gweythoryon key worker

gweythor yêhes m gweythoryon health worker

gwiasva f gwiasvaow website

gwia·synar m gwia·synars webinar

gwil stappys rag phr + verb-noun take steps / measures to

gwithva stoffyes f gwithvaow stockpile

gwynsel f gwynsellow ventilator, respirator

heb arwedhyow phr without symptoms, asymptomatic

hernes diogely personal protective equipment (PPE)

holya-trouvya phr track-and-trace, contact tracing

honenus adj selfish

honenuster selfishness

imûneth immunity

kentrevak m kentrevogyon neighbour

Kescresen rag Biosawder Joint Biosecurity Centre

kescùssulyans an wask press conference

kevarwedhyans an Governans Government guidance

kevrath an morta·lyta mortality rate

kevrath an sawyans recovery rate, survival rate

kildro f kildroyow recession

kyns arwedhyow phr presymptomatic

lêsa spread tr & intr

leunstroth lockdown

level an gwarnyans phr the alert level

lewyor lyfrêson m lewyoryon delivery driver

loneth f lonethy kidney

lowsel an leunstroth phr ease / lift / relax the lockdown

lyfrêson tre home delivery

mainys socyal pl social media

merwel a’n vîrùs phr die from the virus

meth failure (of organ)

mos clâv a’n vîrùs phr catch the virus

neus gwias col neujen [web] threads

nôtya announce

nôtyans sodhogyl m nôtyansow official announcement

nyver reprodùcsyon (R) reproduction (R) number

ol goly in skevens phr lung scarring

omenesa self-isolate

omlêsa spread intr

omsawya recover (from the virus)

o·xygen (o·xyjyn) oxygen

pain i’n vriansen phr sore throat

pandemyk pandemic

pas cough

pas sëgh dry cough

pasa cough

pellder socyal social distancing

pellvetya use video conferencing

peryl m perylyow danger, risk

peryllya endanger (somebody); risk (something)

prenassa ownek fol panic-buy

prenassa wàr lînen phr shop on-line

prevy test

purheor dêwla hand sanitizer

qwa·rantîn quarantine

rag tro phr temporary

resystans resistance (to virus)

rethyans gorotham emergency legislation

scant adj limited (resources etc)

scenaryo a’n gwelha câss best case

scenaryo a’n câss lacka oll worst case

sciensyth omdhonek m sciensydhyon behavioural scientist

scodhyans economyk economic support

secùnd todn phr second wave

sensy pellder socyal phr to social-distance

servys lyfrêson m servyssyow delivery service

Servys Yêhes m (not used with anThe [National] Health Service (NHS)

skevens pl lungs

skew dhyffresus f skewyow dyffresus glass / plastic screen

skit diarrhoea

sosten food (considered as a commodity)

sqwîthans fatigue

stappys dres kynda phr extraordinary measures

stappys diogely phr protective measures

statystygyon pl statistics

stoffya an withva phr stockpile v

stra·tejy m stra·tejys strategy

system imûneth immune system

tanow adj scarce

tanowder scarcity

tardh m tardhow outbreak

termyn strothys phr [for a] limited period

terstuth crisis

teylu ogas / nes close family, close relatives

tomva f tomvaow hotspot

treuscorrans transmission (of the virus)

trewyas sputum

tus ha yêhes gwadn gansa phr people with underlying health problems

tus ker pl loved ones

tylly dre garten phr pay by card

udn mêter alês / an eyl orth y gela phr one metre apart

uhel y beryl phr high-risk; at high risk

uhelboynt m uhelboyntys peak (in infections)

unsys dourwith m unsysow intensive care unit (ICU)

vacsîn vaccine

vîrologyth m vîrologydhyon virologist

vîrùs m vîrùsow virus

vysour fâss m vysours face mask

vysour kyrù·rjery m vysours surgical mask

whythrans (orth) research (into)


Mining Terms in Cornish

Ian Jackson, Agan Tavas talk / areth Agan Tavas, November / mis Du 2017 (KS)

 adit n ôdyt m odytys
adventure n aventur m aventurs
adventurer n aventuryor m aventuryoryon
alluvial adj livlisek
bal maiden n moren f moronyon bal
beam engine n jyn m keber
black tin (peroxide) n sten m du
blowing house n chy m treven whetha
boiler n caudarn m caudarns
boiler house n chy m treven caudarn
branch (of lode) n scorren f scorednow
brogue n pawgenpawgednow
bruise v brewy
buck v bockya
buddle n bùdel m bùdellow
buddle v bùdellya
buddler n bùdellyor m bùdellyoryon
burn v lesky
burning house n chy m treven lesky
cage (of lift) n bagh f bahow
calcine v rôstya
calciner n rôstyor rôstyoryon
cassiterite n men m sten
casualty n den m brew pl: tus vrew
circular adj kelhek
cob v cobbya
copper n cober m
copper pyrites n mûn m melen
cost book n lyver m lyvrow costow
count house n chy m treven acowntya
cover n argharhow
craze v terry
crop n pedn m pednow
crush v sqwattya
crusher n sqwattyor m sqwattyoryon
deposit n godhas m godhojyon
development n dysplegyans m
dradge n dràj m
dress v dyghtya
dressing floor n leurleuryow dyghtya
dressing operation n oberyans m oberyansow dyghtya
drive (tunnel etc) v drîvya
engine n jynjynys
engine house n jynjyjynjiow
engineer n injynorinjynoryon
fathom n gourhesgourhesow
fine adj fin
flood v budhy
frame n fram m frâmys
furnace n fornysfornysyow
granite n men m growyn
grate n maglenmaglednow
griddle n gradellgradellow
griddle v gradellya
halvans n growyjyon pl
head n pedn pednow
high pressure steam n ethenwascas uhel
hoist v haulya
hutch n argharhow jyggya
iron pyrites n owr m an bobba
jag v jaggya
jig v jyggya
kibble n kybel kybellow
kieve n tonel tonellow
killas n kyllas col
launder n londerlondrys
lease n prislesprislesow
leat n canelcanellow
level n level m levelyow
lode n gothgwythy
lode mining n gonysbal
matrix n mabmek m
metal n olcan m
metamorphic adj dyfelebys
middle n cres m
mill n melyn f melynyow
mill v mala
mine n whelwhelyow
mine v palas
mine captain n captên captêns an bal
miner n dentus bal
mineral agent n mainormainoryon mûn
mineral lord n arlùtharlydhy mûn
mining n gonysmûn (generally or specifically copper); gonys sten (tin)
mining accident n droglam m droglabmow bal
mundic n owr m an bobba
ore n mûn m (in general or specifically copper); sten m (tin)
oven n forn f fornow
pack v packya
pick v cùntell
pickaxe n pyckpyckys
pitman n den m tus poll
prillsprylyon pl
production n ascoryans m
pump v pùmpya
purser n porsor m porsoryon
rag v raggya
riddle v rydra
rock drill n tardarterder carrek
rough adj garow
royalty n mûndalasmûndalasow
safety helmet n basnet basnettys sawder
scoriasoras col
set (of stamps) n setsettys
sett n pastelpastellow bal
shaft n shaftashaftys
share n kevrankevradnow
shift n torn tornys
shore up v settya peul dhe
shovel n rev f revow
sink a shaft phr polly shafta
skimpings n tanowyon pl
sledge (hammer) n slodyaslodyes
slime n slim m
slime pit n pollpollow slim
smalls n manylyon pl
smelt v tedha
smelter n tedhortedhoryon
smelting house n chy treven tedha
spall v skyrra
specific gravity n postercomparek
square adj pedrak
stamp v stampya
stamps n stampys pl
stannary n stenak stenegow
steam engine n jynjynys ethen
stope n stôpstôpys
stope v stôpya
stoper n stôpyorstôpyoryon
strip n lin f lînyow
sump n sùmpsùmpys
surgeon n chyrùrjyenchyrùrjyens
surveyor n arwhythrorarwhythroryon
tail n lost m lostow
tin n sten m (ore); stengwydn (metal)
tin bounds n tir sten
tin-stuff n stenstoff m
tinner n stenorstenoryon
tinstone n mensten
tramway n tràmtramyow
trauma n goly goliow
tribute n trubyt m
tributer n den m tus trubyt
trunk n tronktronkys
trunk v tronkya
tutwork n ranweyth m
tutworker n ranweythorranweythoryon
van n revrevow
van v revya
washing-plate n plâtplâtys golhy
waste n atal col
water wheel n ros rosow dowr
whim n whymwhyms
white tin n sten m gwydn
whits n gwydnyon pl
winding engine n whymwhyms
winze n gwynsgwynsys
wolfram n wolfram m
work (ore being dressed) n ober m
workings n balbalow
yellow ore n mûnmelen 

KS Crowseryow

S and K Crowseryow

 Kevren dhe Skeul An Tavas crowseryow / Skeul An Tavas crosswords link


Kernowek Quyz 1

Draw a line between question and correct answer

1. I am happy 

A. An sagh o deg pens

2. I was sad 

B. Hy a vydn ponya

3. She will run 

C. Lowen ov vy

4. Is a man in the garden 

D. Yma ev ow cusca

5. Is that book new 

E. Peth yw hedna

6. What is that 

F. Yw an lyver-na nowyth

7. The bag was ten pounds (£10) 

G. Trist en vy

8. He is sleeping 

H. Eus den in lowarth

Download File Here:       Kernowek_Qwyz_1.pdf

Kernowek Standard Qwyz 2

What are these Cornish words?

1. YTNYMT ______________

2. TDAYL _______________

3. EHHYRTNW ______________

4. AWEPRS ______________

5. ELKPLOWLO ___________

6. YNSETHE ______________

7. LLVEERE ______________

8. HTEL ________________

9. THPE _______________

10. WYP _______________

11. SEERTM ______________

12. HDROF ______________

13. HIQTWS _______________

14. LLSGOA ______________

15. EHHGW ______________

16. WGUHB __________________

17. CFISRA __________________

18. ERWEK ___________________

19. WLKAGE _________________

20. AVOWOR _________________

Download File Here:        Kernowek_Standard_Qwyz_2.pdf

Kernowek Standard Qwyz 3

Draw a line between Question and Correct answer

Name: ___________________________________

Date: ______________

Kernowek Quiz 3

1. I do not run

A. Y a yll cana

2. You (s) will walk

B. Os ta lowen

3. They can sing

C. Yma hy ow scrifa

4. He does not want to read

D. Yth esof vy owth eva

5. We can row

E. Is a child outside

6. Hy a vydn gwary

F. Crev yw ev

7. You will not come

G. Trist ov vy

8. They will ride

H. Pwgh why ryb an margh

9. She is writing

I. She will play

10. Can the boy swim

J. Nyns yw an lyver na noweth

11. I am sad

K. Ny a wra revya

12. Usy an vowes tre

L. Is the girl home

13. Eus flogh in mes

M. Usons y dhyrag

14. They are behind

N. A yll an maw neyja

15. Are they in front

O. Ymowns y adrev

16. Are you happy

P. Me na wra ponya

17. He is strong

Q. Y a vydn marhogeth

18. That book is not new

R. Te a vydn kerdhes

19. Are you beside the horse

S. Why na wra dos

20. I am drinking

T. Ev na garsa redya

Download File Here:    Kernowek_Quiz_3 (1).pdf

Kernowek Standard Quyz 4 

 Draw a line between the correct opposites

Aswon an Contrary (Identify the opposite)

1. Brȃs

A. Rȏnd

2. Coth

B. Terry

3. Hir

C. Gorfedna


D. Pell

5. Mebyon

E. Scav

6. Poos

F. Glёb

7. Uhel

G. Peryllys

8. Pedrak

H. Benow

9. Dallath

I. Marow

10. Gorow

J. Wherow

11. Gwag

K. Medhel

12. Ogas

L. Yonk

13. Tewl

M. Drog

14. Plos

N. Benenes

15. Fur

O. Glȃn

16. Adȃl

P. Bohosak

17. Ȇwna

Q. Leun

18. Bew

R. Ryb

19. Cara

S. Hȃtya

20. Wheg

T. Gocky

21. Du

U. Mowysy

22. Tus

V. Isel

23. Rych

W. Cot

24. Saw

X. Gwydn

25. Cales

Y. Spladn

26. Sёgh

Z. Bian

Download File Here:              Aswon_an_Contrary_Identify_the_opposite.pdf

Multi Choice Quiz

Care: This quiz is PowerPoint based and will need PowerPoint to work correctly. Unfortunately at this time it does not work correctly on Apple products.

Multiple Choice quiz web 1 3.9.20.ppsx

Word Search onen


Find the Kernowek translation in the grid for the English words in list below ( kernowek Standard spelling)



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Last updated: September 2020