Kernowek Lulyn

A site dedicated to beginners learning the Cornish language

Me a wait te dhe gara agan gwiasva.

About


About
This site is designed to assist people in the first few years of learning the Cornish Language (Kernowek) and is based on Kernowek Standard with spellings designed to aid pronunciation.  It is not promoted to be the definitive of the language  but is only intended to help early learners in KS and hopefully provide some links to learn more about the history of Cornwall and its people.

The site is intended to assist those learning under the structure of the Language Ladder at a "Breakthrough Level" based currently on the three stages included in Skeul an Tavas.

As with other languages there is always room for differences in interpretation and use, therefore there is likely to be elements within the site that some will question or disagree with but it should be remembered the site is here only to assist, and encourage people to learn the Cornish Language, and should not be used as the only point of referral or knowledge.

Oll an gwella


About:   Kernowek Standard
Kernowek Standard has been revised throughout on the basis of the "Standard Written Form (with reference also to Revived Middle Cornish & Revived Late Cornish dialects)" and is close to its orthography except for small changes in spelling. KS also uses diacritical marks to aid pronunciation. Agan Tavas has worked with Evertype to produce "Skeul an Tavas"  in Kernowek Standard and Standard Written Form for those who wish to use it in Cornish classes.


Contact


  • Helston, Cornwall, United Kingdom

Nowyth i’n mis-ma / New this month



Nowyth i’n mis-ma / New this month:

 Mis Genver:

Tressa radn a’n lyver An 39 Stap, trailys dhe Gernowek, ha gerva ganso / third instalment of the book The 39 Steps, translated into Cornish, with glossary

Events


Past Events

Title Date Location
Yeth an Werin yn Cambron 11 Jan 2020 Lowenac Hotel Camborne
AN TRESSA CHAPTRA A VËDH KEWORRYS DHE’N CHAPTRYS-MA MIS GENVER 2020 10 Jan 2020
Yeth an Werin 31 Dec 2019 Tavern Pons Resulyan ogas dhe Redrudh (Bridge Inn)
Yeth an Weryn 14 Dec 2019 The Lowenac Hotel, Camborne
Nadelik Lyskerrys 30 Nov 2019 Liskeard, UK
Kylgh 'learners' Yeth' 22 Nov 2019 Murdoch House, Cross Street, Redruth

Some Links for you


Canow Kernowek


Dictionaries



A modern dictionary specifically designed
for those learning traditional revived Cornish
Cornish-English, English-Cornish
Paperback, 300 pages, 5000 Cornish entries
+ separate section of ‘grammar words’
+ 300 ‘outbursts’ to enliven conversation
+ 250 place-names
Standard Cornish spelling
Comes with pronunciation guidance sheet
£11-50 inclusive of postage / packing to any UK address
iacobianus@googlemail.com

Pronunciation Guide


PRONUNCIATION GUIDE



CORNISH PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
To accompany Gerlyver Kescows
Guidance is based on Standard Cornish, the most phonetic of the spelling systems founded on Middle Cornish. It reflects a plausible reconstruction of Cornish as spoken in the western parts of Cornwall at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The influence of early revivalists can still be heard today in certain ‘spelling pronunciations’ of Unified Cornish, even though that orthography is now rarely used. Such pronunciations, here introduced by ‘or’ in round brackets, are best avoided: they are a misunderstanding of Unified Cornish, which was not conceived as a phonetic system.
Vowels (including diphthongs)
There is a strong tendency to reduce simple vowel sounds in unstressed syllables to the vowel sound in THE when not rhymed with THEE, though i or u ‘colouring’ will persist. And stressed short e likewise reduces before retroflex r. When they are not stressed, ow and final u tend to lose the w sound.
a In a monosyllable not ending in a voiceless, geminate or pre-occluded consonant, the vowel sound in CAT but lengthened; also in a monosyllable ending gh, sk, st or th. Otherwise as for à.
à   The vowel sound in CAT.
â    The vowel sound in CAT but lengthened. In monosyllables ending in l n s or v, as for ò but lengthened (or as for a). When stressed in loan-words before c p ss or t, optionally as for ê (a in paper may also be so pronounced).
ai    When stressed, as for ê. Otherwise as for è.
au    When stressed, as for ô. Otherwise as for ò.
aw    The vowel sound in COW.
ay    The vowel sound in FLY (or as for ai). But some pronounce with lowered tongue, as for ey.
e       In a monosyllable not ending in a voiceless, geminate or pre-occluded consonant, the vowel sound in THERE; also in a monosyllable ending gh, sk, st or th (but see note below). Otherwise as for è.
è     The vowel sound in PET.
ê      The vowel sound in THERE.
ë         As for ê or î according to preference.
eu   When stressed, either the vowel sound in FUR or as for ê (or u). Otherwise either the vowel sound in FUR but shortened or as for è (or u).
ew      As for yw. But the ‘yoo’ sound of USE in Ewny and relevant loan-words.
ey   The vowel sound in FLY but with the tongue lowered (or as for î). In unweyth ‘once’, dewweyth ‘twice’ etc it is reduced to the vowel sound in PET (or KIT).
i      The vowel sound in ME. But often reduced to the vowel sound in KIT when unstressed.
î      The vowel sound in ME.
o      When in a monosyllable not ending in a voiceless, geminate or pre-occluded consonant, as for ò but lengthened; also in a monosyllable ending gh, sk, st or th. Otherwise as for ò.
ò        Half-way between the vowel sound in COT and the one in CUT.
ô      The vowel sound in CORE.
oo      Lips as for ô, tongue as for û (or as for ô). This sound was originally confined to certain monosyllabic environments but then began to spread: for example, scoodh and scoodhya for scodhya.
ou     When stressed, as for û, though sometimes heard as for ow in loan-words. Otherwise as for ù.
ow    The vowel sound in CUT + w, pronounced as a diphthong. Some pronounce half-way between this sound and the one in COW. Some pronounce as ù before a vowel.
ôw     As for ow or yw according to preference.
oy     The vowel sound in COY but with the tongue lowered.
u       When stressed, as for î (or as in German grün ‘green’). Otherwise (and in auxiliary gwrug) the vowel sound in KIT (or as in German hübsch ‘pretty’). But always as for ù before a vowel. As for yw finally. In ugh and derivatives, the ‘yoo’ sound of USE.
ù     The vowel sound in COULD.
û      The vowel sound in COO. But û in relevant loan-words has the ‘yoo’ sound of USE.
y       At the beginning of a word or alone as a particle, the vowel sound in THE when not rhymed with THEE. Alone meaning ‘they’ or stressed at the end of a word, the vowel sound in ME but with the tongue lowered. Unstressed at the end of a word of more than one syllable, the final vowel sound in TEDDY or BODY (slight variation as in English). Otherwise, the vowel sound in KIT.
ÿ        As for î or ê according to preference.
yw      The vowel sound in KIT + w, pronounced as a diphthong.
As a general rule, sk and st lengthen the preceding vowel in a monosyllabic word. But an e is often pronounced short in this position; an i-sound always. The latter is accordingly written y in Standard Cornish.
Consonants (geminates usually pronounced as single, but see bm dn dnh lh ss)
b        As in English. But as for p in heb, neb, pùb, ryb when next word begins with a voiceless consonant, l or n.
bm    As in English but the first element pronounced only lightly (pre-occluded m). Those writing mm may still pronounce as bm.
c        Before any e i or y, as in SAT (but see [s]cy below for relevant loan-words). Otherwise as in CAT but generally with less aspiration than in English.
ch      As in CHAT. But as for k if written in words originating in Greek (though this is a derogation, under the influence of Unified Cornish Revised, from the k-spelling found in the Standard Cornish specification).
ck     As for k.
d      As in English.
dh     As in THAT. But as in THIN before any v and (for some) when final. But often silent in the combination rdh when final and occasionally elsewhere (kerdhes, for example); for some, as for rth when final.
dn       As in English but the first element pronounced only lightly (pre-occluded n). Those writing nn may still pronounce as dn.
dnh       As for dn, but d tending to t, nh a single sound (voiceless n with slight aspiration). Some write as nn.
f     As English F (but as English V in 2nd state). When final, it is pronounced only lightly or is wholly silent.
g      As in English. But as for k in prag, rag (and finally in auxiliary gwrug) before voiceless consonant, l or n; and medially before any v.
gh   As in LOCH. But often reduced to h or even silent.
h    As in English. But it may become silent between vowels.
j      As in English.
k     As in English but generally with less aspiration.
l      As in English. But only some use the ‘dark’ version heard in FILL. After an f sound (however spelled) in the same word, or after a k or p sound (however spelled) in the same utterance, it may be pronounced as for lh; also in whedhel, pronounced ‘whethelh’.
lh     A single sound: voiceless retroflex l with slight aspiration. Some write as ll.
m      As in English.
n     As in English. After an f sound (however spelled) in the same word, or after a k or p sound (however spelled) in the same utterance, it may be pronounced as if nh: a voiceless n with slight aspiration.
ng    As in English: single sound ‘ng’, but double sound ‘ng-g’ in relevant loan-words.
p     As in English but generally with less aspiration.
q     As in English but generally with less aspiration.
 r   Trilled gently on tongue tip (not rolled). But retroflex (tip of tongue curled slightly back, no trill) when preceded by vowel and followed by consonant, or when final (except when next word in same utterance begins with trilled r).
s      As in SAT. But as in IS (i.e. as if z) medially before a vowel or voiced consonant in the same utterance, when final after a stressed vowel, and in plural suffix ys. Also initially in relevant loan-words. And for some speakers in other circumstances by analogy. But ss is always pronounced as in KISS, except in the combination ssy (see below).
[s]cy     In relevant loan-words, as for sh. But in a verb-noun like chacya, cy is simply c + consonantal y.
 sh          In loan-words, as in English.
sr      In words of Celtic origin, as if dr: for example, asran as adran; Resrudh as Redrudh and better so spelled.
[s]sy       In loan-words, as for sh.
t      As in English but generally with less aspiration.
th    As in THIN. But final rth is often reduced to rh: voiceless retroflex r with slight aspiration.
v      As in English. But as for f medially before any l n or r, and optionally in similar environemnt: e.g. lavurya, wharvos.
w      A ‘glide’ as in English. But only lightly pronounced in initial gwr, wr and qwr.
wh      As in WHEN pronounced precisely (voiceless w with slight aspiration). ‘Lazy’ pronunciation as w is not an option.
x    In loan-words, as in TAX.
y   Before a vowel, y is a ‘glide’ with the same pronunciation as English consonantal y. Initial yê / yêw / yêy optionally as for e / ew / ey respectively.
z      In loan-words, as in English.

Juncture
Regressive assimilation may occur when consonants meet across the boundary of two closely associated words. The commonest instances have been noted above. When consonants come together inside a word, assimilatory or dissimilatory devoicing can occur. Some of these changes will happen automatically in fluent speech. Others are practised by some speakers only. The detail is beyond the scope of this guidance sheet.

Stress
Cornish words generally have a relatively strong stress accent. The primary stress falls in most cases on the penultimate syllable of a word. Some disyllables are evenly stressed. In a hyphenated word, each element bears its own stress (if any). Monosyllabic prepositions are unstressed except for emphasis. Particles are always unstressed. Stress is usually reduced on a few other monosyllabic words qualifying a noun or adjective: e.g. neb, pòr, pùb.
© Ian Jackson 2019                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This version September 2019

Mutation Rules



Mutations


 


 

Soft

Breathed

Hard

Mixed

1

2

3

4

5

B

V

 

P

F

C,K

G

H

 

 

CH

J

 

 

 

D

Dh

 

T

T

G

-

 

C,K


Gw

W

-

Qw

WH/W

M

V

 

 

F,V

P

B

F

 

 

Qw

G

Wh

 

 

T

D

Th

 

 

F

V

 

 

 


 


 


First State or Radical


The first state is where the original word remains unmodified in its form


Rules for States 2, 3, 4 and 5


State 2 (The Soft Mutation) - Lenition


Previously we have looked at the soft mutation (State 2). This applies to words following a feminine noun (benyndha “a good woman”), feminine nouns after “an” (the definite article) (an2 venyn “ the woman”) and plural masculine nouns relating to people (tusgref “ strong people”).


In addition we notice that “un” (one) (un2 venyn “one woman”) and “dew” (two) (dewdhen “two men”) also mutate the following word if it is feminine singular  or masculine plural relating to people. 


Some particles also cause a state 2 mutation e.g. (my awelas “I see” or my na2 welas “I do not see”)


Some other words, particularly pronouns “dha” (your) (dha2 jy “your house”) and “y” (his) (y2 gath “his cat”) cause a soft mutation, as do some prepositions such as “a” “of” “war” “dhe” “heb”.


Finally Pajer (four) has the feminine form Peder to be used with feminine nouns, and Mil (1,000) causes a soft mutation


So, in summary State 2 occurs


·        After “an” for feminine singular nouns and masculine plural relating to people ( which makes the “Soft Mutation” the odd man out as gender can make a difference as to whether mutations are applied.


·        After some particles (a, ny, na)


·        After possessive pronouns (dha & y)


·        After important functional words (mainly prepositions)


·        In numbers un2, dew2, and mil2 causing a following mutation


 


State 3 – Aspirate


This mainly happens:


·        After the possessive pronouns ow3 (my), hy3 (hers) and aga3 (theirs)


·        After tri3 and teyr3 (masculine and feminine forms of three)


This mutation is independent of gender of any nouns involved


 


State 4 – Hard 


Mostly you will find this mutation in secondary clauses after mar “if” and the present participle “ow” ( -ing) “owqwil” (doing), “owcolhy” (washing)


This mutation is independent of gender of any nouns involved


 


State 5 – Mixed 


This occurs after “yn” the adverbial particle meaning “-ly” “yn tyen” (completely) “yn teffri” (really), and after the verbal particle “y” (that) “my a2 welas y teth ef” (I saw that he had come)


This mutation is independent of gender of any nouns involved.






 

 

 

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Verbal Paradigms - Bos


  Verbal Paradigm – BOS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

Kernowek Standard and UCR


Simple Present

O’vy / oma    Of ve – I am                    

Os ta             Os ta – you are              

Yma ev           Yw ef – he is.                  

Yma hy            Yw hy – she is.               

On ny           On ny – we are.            

Owgh why   Ough why – you are     

Yns Y             Ynjy – they are.            


Long Form Present

Yth esof vy              Theraf ve – I am                     

Yth esos ta              Th'esta – You are.              

Yth esa ev               Thera ef – He is.                     

Yth esa hy               Thera hy – She is.                   

Yth eson ny             Th'eron ny – We are.             

Yth esowgh why     Th'erowgh why – You are.     

Yth ymowns y          mowns y / ma anjy = They are.      


Short form Imperfect

En vy                     En ve – I was.                         

Es ta                      Es ta – You were.                  

O ev                      O ef – He was.                       

O hy                      O hy – She was.                     

En ny                     En ny – We were.                  

Ewgh why            Eugh why – You were.          

Ȇns y                     Ens ynjy – They were.           


Long Form Imperfect

Yth esen vy               Thejen ve – I was.                        

Yth eses ta                Theros ta – You were.                 

Yth esa ef                  Theja ef – He was.                       

Yth esa hy                 Theja hy – She was.                     

Yth esen ny               Thejen ny – We were.                 

Yth esewgh why      Thejeugh why – You were          

Yth esens y               Thesens ynjy – They were.        


Future

Bedha' vy                Bedhaf ve -  I will be       

Bedhys ta                Bedhys ta – You will be  

Bёdh ef                    Bedh ef -  He will be        

Bёdh hy                   Bedh hy -  She will be      

Bedhyn ny               Bedhyn ny – We will be  

Bedhowgh why      Bedhough why – You will be   

Bedhons y               Bedhons ynjy – They will be 



Past Habitual

Bedhen vy                 Bedhen ve – I always used to be 

Bedhes ta                  Bedhes ta – You always used to be  

Bedha ev                   Bedha ef – He always used to be   

Bedha hy                   Bedha hy – She always used to   

Bedhen ny                 Bedhen ny – We always used to   

Bedhewgh why         Bedheugh why – You always used to   

Bedhens y                  Bedhens ynjy (y) – They always used to  


Preterite

Beu' ve             Buef ve – I was   

Beusta              Bues ta – You were  

Beu ev               Bue ef – He was  

Beu hy               Bue hy – She was  

Beun ny             Buen ny – We were  

Bewgh / why be'why      Beugh why – You were  

Bowns y             Bons ynjy – They were  


Conditional

Bien ve               Byen ve – I could be          

Bies ta                 Byes ta - You could be     

Bia ev                  Bya ef – He could be         

Bia hy                  Bya hy – She could be    

Bien ny                Byen ny – We could be   

Biowgh why / bie'why       Byeugh why – You could be  

Biens y                Byens ynjy – They could be   


Subjunctive

Ben ve – I may/might be       

Bes ta – You may/might be  

Be ef(ev) – He may/might be     

Be hy – She may be              

Ben ny – We may be            

Beugh why – You may/might  

Bens y(ynjy) – They may/might  




Moy Adro Bos


Moy Adro Bos

Below is a table of “Bos” or “to be” in present tense with some examples of its use:

Of vy – I am (I be)

Os ta – you are / thou are (you be)

Yw ev – He is (he be)

Yw hy – She is (she be)

On ny – We are (we be)

Owgh why – We are (we be)

Yns y – They are (they be)


When using “Bos” in this form to make a statement or answer a question in the positive the verb will follow the object e.g.

Lowen ov vy – happy I be (I am happy)

Trist os ta – sad you be (You are sad)

Crev yw ev – strong he be (He is strong)

Teg yw hy – nice she be (She is nice)

Cowetha on ny – Friends we be (We are friends)

Pùscadoryon owgh why – Fishermen you be (You are fisherman)

Tus ha benenes yns y – Men and women they be (They are men and women


Note: it is useful when learning Kernowek to think of things in terms of “be” for example “I be” rather than “I am” as this will remind you that you should be using “Bos”.

By placing “Bos” before the object you create a question form rather than positive statement:

Os ta trist? – Be you sad? (Are you sad?)

Yw hy teg? – Be she nice? (Is she nice?)

Owgh why Pùscadoryon? – Be you fishermen? (Are you fishermen?)


You can also use “Bos” with personal pronouns:

Me – me

Te – you

Ev – he

Hy – she

Ny – we

Why – you

Y – they


Note: When you use verbs with personal pronouns you use only the “Third Person Singular” of the verb, even for plural subjects.

For example, some of the third person singulars of “Bos” are as listed below:

Yw – present (am)

O – past (was)

Vedh – future (will be)

There are other tenses of “Bos” but we will only use those above for this exampleRemember the above rule applies when using any verbs with personal pronouns.

Examplys:

Me yw lowen – I am happy

Te o trist – You were sad

Ev a vedh crev – He will be strong


When you are comfortable with this construction you can create other types of questions using “Pёth” (What) and “Pyw” (Who) as below:

Remember as words in Kernowek are masculine (Gorow) or Female (Benow) “ev and hy” can not only refer to people but also things, depending on whether the thing in question is masculine or feminine, so can be “it”


Pёth yw ev? (What is He?) – Maw yw ev (He is a boy)

Pёth yw ev? (What is it?) – Lyver yw ev (It is a book)

Pёth yw hy? (What is she?) – Mowes yw hy (She is a girl)

Pёth yw hy? (What is it?) – Pluven yw hy (A pen it is)

Examplys:

Me yw lowen – I am happy

Te o trist – You were sad

Ev a vedh crev – He will be strong


When you are comfortable with this construction you can create other types of questions using “Pёth” (What) and “Pyw” (Who) as below:

Remember as words in Kernowek are masculine (Gorow) or Female (Benow) “ev and hy” can not only refer to people but also things, depending on whether the thing in question is masculine or feminine, so can be “it”


Pёth yw ev? (What is He?) – Maw yw ev (He is a boy)

Pёth yw ev? (What is it?) – Lyver yw ev (It is a book)

Pёth yw hy? (What is she?) – Mowes yw hy (She is a girl)

Pёth yw hy? (What is it?) – Pluven yw hy (A pen it is)


Pyw yw ev? (Who is he?) – Wella yw ev (He is Wella)

Pyw owgh why? (Who are you?) – Pùscadoryon on ny (Fishermen are we)


Remember when answering questions, it is necessary to change the person in some cases when answering for example “Who are you – pyw os ta?” should be answered “Peter I am – Pedr of vy”. This will also apply for “you” and “we” in the same way.

Patronys a Gescows


PATRONYS A GESCOWS


TY HA MY

 

Bos


Present                                                                 Present

Osta ...?                                                                 Are you ...?

Ov, ... ov vy                                                           Yes, I am ...

Nag ov, nyns ov vy ...                                        No, I am not ...

 

Esta ...?                                                                 Are you ...? (in a place)

Eso’, th’eso’vy ...                                                Yes, I am ... (in a place)

Nag eso’, nyns eso’vy ...                                  No, I am not ... (in a place)

 

Termyn eus passys                                            Past

Es jy ...?                                                                 Were you ...?

En, ... en vy                                                           Yes, I was ...

Nag en, nyns en vy ...                                       No, I was not ...


Eses jy ...?                                                             Were you ...? (in a place)

Esen, th’esen vy ...                                             Yes, I was ... (in a place)

Nag esen, nyns esen vy ...                               No, I was not ... (in a place)


A veusta ...?                                                         Have you been ...?

Beuv, me re beu ...                                             Yes, I have been ...

Na veuv, ny veu’vy ...                                        No, I have not been ...


A veusta ...?                                                         Had you been ...?

Beuv, me a veu (y feuma) ...                           Yes, I had been ...

Na veuv, ny veu’vy ...                                        No, I had not been ...

 

Termyn a dheu                                                   Future

A vedhys jy ...?                                                       Will you be ...?

Bedha’, me a vëdh (y fedhama) ...                Yes, I will be ...

Na vedha’, ny vedha’vy ...                                 No, I will not be ...


Amser ambosek                                                 Conditional

A vies jy ...?                                                            Would you be ...?

Bien, me a via (y fien vy) ...                             Yes, I would be ...

Na vien, ny vien vy ...                                         No, I would not be ...

 
 

 

PATRONYS A GESCOWS


TY HA MY

 

Gwil nampyth (oll gans verb-hanow)


Present                                                   Present

Esta ow4 ....?                                           Are you ...?

                                                                       Do you ...?

Eso’, th’eso’vy ow4 ...                            Yes, I am ...

                                                                       Yes, I do ...

Nag eso’, nyns eso’vy ow4 ...              No, I am not ...

                                                                       No, I do not ...


Termys eus passys                                  Past

Esen vy ow4 ...?                                       Were you ...?

Esen, th’esen vy ow4 ...                          Yes, I was ...

Nag esen, nyns esen vy ow4 ...           No, I was not ...


A wrusta ...?                                            Did you ...?

                                                                      Have you ...?

Gwrug, me a wrug ...                            Yes, I did ...

Gwrug, my re wrug ...                           Yes, I have ...

Na wrug, ny wrug avy ...                      No, I did not ...

                                                                       No, I have not ...


Termyn a dheu                                       Future

A vynta ...?

A wrêta ...?                                              Will you ...?

A vedhys jy ow4 ...?


Mydna’, me a vydn ...

Gwrav, me a wra ...                                 Yes, I will ...

Bedha’, me a vëdh

(y fedhama) ow4 ...


Na vydna’, ny vydna’vy ...

Na wrav, ny wra’vy ...                             No, I won’t ...

Na vedha’, ny vedha’vy ow4 ...

PATRONYS A GESCOWS


WHY HA NY

 

Bos


Present                                                                 Present

O’why ...?                                                             Are you ...?

On, ... on ny                                                         Yes, we are ...

Nag on, nyns on ny ...                                     No, we are not ...

 

Eso’why ...?                                                          Are you ...? (in a place)

Eson, th’eson ny ...                                            Yes, we are ... (in a place)

Nag eson, nyns eson ny ...                             No, we are not ... (in a place)

 

Termyn eus passys                                            Past

E’why ...?                                                              Were you ...?

En, ... en ny                                                          Yes, we were ...

Nag en, nyns en ny ...                                       No, we were not ...


Ese’why ...?                                                          Were you ...? (in a place)

Esen, th’esen ny ...                                            Yes, we were ... (in a place)

Nag esen, nyns esen ny ...                              No, we were not ... (in a place)


A ve’why ...?                                                        Have you been ...?

Beun, ny re beu ...                                              Yes, we have been ...

Na veun, ny veun ny ...                                     No, we have not been ...


A ve’why ...?                                                        Had you been ...?

Beun, ny a veu (y feun ny) ...                        Yes, we had been ...

Na veun, ny veun ny ...                                    No, we had not been ...

 

Termyn a dheu                                                   Future

A vedho’why ...?                                                Will you be ...?

Bedhyn, ny a vëdh (y fedhyn ny) ...            Yes, we will be ...

Na vedhyn, ny vedhyn ny ...                           No, we will not be ...


Amser ambosek                                                 Conditional

A vie’why ...?                                                       Would you be ...?

Bien, ny a via (y fien ny) ...                             Yes, we would be ...

Na vien, ny vien ny ...                                       No, we would not be ...

 
 

 

PATRONYS A GESCOWS


WHY HA NY

 

Gwil nampyth (oll gans verb-hanow)


Present                                                   Present

Eso’why ow4 ....?                                     Are you ...?

                                                                        Do you ...?

Eson, th’eson ny ow4 ...                         Yes, we are ...

                                                                        Yes, we do ...

Nag eson, nyns eson ny ow4 ...         No, we are not ...

                                                                        No, we do not ...


Termyn eus passys                                 Past

Ese’why ow4 ...?                                      Were you ...?

Esen, th’esen ny ow4 ...                         Yes, we were ...

Nag esen, nyns esen ny ow4 ...          No, we were not ...


A wrusso’why ...?                                    Did you ...?

                                                                        Have you ...?

Gwrussyn, ny a wrug ...                        Yes, we did ...

Gwrussyn, ny re wrug ...                       Yes, we have ...

Na wrussyn, ny wrussyn ny ...            No, we did not ...

                                                                        No, we have not ...


Termyn a dheu                                       Future

A vydno’why ...?

A wre’why ...?                                         Will you ...?

A vedho’why ow4 ...?


Mydnyn, ny a vydn ...

Gwren, ny a wra ...                                  Yes, we will ...

Bedhyn, ny a vëdh

(y fedhyn ny) ow4 ...


Na vydnyn, ny vydnyn ny ...

Na wren, ny wren ny ...                           No, we won’t ...

Na vedhyn, ny vedhyn ny ow4 ...

PATRONYS A GESCOWS


EV (HY)

 

Bos


Present                                                                 Present

Yw va (hy) ...?                                                      Is he-she-it ...?

Yw, ... yw va (hy)                                                Yes, he-she-it is ...

Nag yw, nyns yw va (hy) ...                            No, he-she-it is not ...

 

Usy va (hy) ...?                                                    Is he-she-it ...? (in a place)

Usy, yma va (hy) ...                                           Yes, he-she-it is ... (in a place)

Nag usy, nyns usy va (hy) ...                         No, he-she-it is not ... (in a place)

 

Termyn eus passys                                            Past

O va (hy) ...?                                                        Was he-she-it ...?

O, ... o va (hy)                                                      Yes, he-she-it was ...

Nag o, nyns o va (hy) ...                                 No, he-she-it was not ...


Esa va (hy) ...?                                                     Was he-she-it ...? (in a place)

Esa, th’esa va (hy) ...                                         Yes, he-she-it was ... (in a place)

Nag esa, nyns esa va (hy) ...                          No, he-she-it was not ... (in a place)


A veu va (hy) ...?                                                 Has he-she-it been ...?

Beu, ev (hy) re beu ...                                        Yes, he-she-it has been ...

Na veu, ny veu va (hy) ...                                 No, he-she-it has not been ...


A veu va (hy) ...?                                                 Had he-she-it been ...?

Beu, ev (hy) a veu (y feu va / hy) ...             Yes, he-she-it I had been ...

Na veu, ny veu va (hy) ...                                  No, he-she-it had not been ...

 

Termyn a dheu                                                   Future

A vëdh ev (hy) ...?                                              Will he-she-it be ...?

Bëdh, ev (hy) a vëdh (y fëdh ev / hy) ...    Yes, he-she-it will be ...

Na vëdh, ny vëdh ev (hy) ...                            No, he-she-it will not be ...


Amser ambosek                                                 Conditional

A via va (hy) ...?                                                  Would he-she-it be ...?

Bia, ev (hy) a via (y fia va / hy) ...                 Yes, he-she-it would be ...

Na via, ny via va (hy) ...                                    No, he-she-it would not be ...

 

PATRONYS A GESCOWS


EV (HY)

 

Gwil nampyth (oll gans verb-hanow)


Present                                                   Present

Usy va (hy) ow4 ....?                                Is he-she-it ...?

                                                                        Does he-she-it ...?

Usy, yma va (hy) ow4 ...                        Yes, he-she-it is ...

                                                                        Yes, he-she-it does ...

Nag usy, nyns usy va (hy) ow4 ...      No, he-she-it is not ...

                                                                        No, he-she-it does not ...


Termyn eus passys                                 Past

Esa va (hy) ow4 ...?                                  Was he-she-it ...?

Esa, th’esa va (hy) ow4 ...                       Yes, he-she-it was ...

Nag esa, nyns esa va (hy) ow4 ...        No, he-she-it was not ...


A wrug ev (hy) ...?                                   Did he-she-it ...?

                                                                        Has he-she-it ...?

Gwrug, ev (hy) a wrug ...                      Yes, he-she-it did ...

Gwrug, ev (hy) re wrug ...                     Yes, he-she-it has ...

Na wrug, ny wrug ev (hy) ...                 No, he-she-it did not ...

                                                                         No, he-she-it has not ...


Amser ambosek                                     Future

A vydn ev (hy)...?

A wra va (hy)...?                                      Will he-she-it ...?

A vëdh ev (hy) ow4 ...?


Mydn, ev (hy) a vydn ...

Gwra, ev (hy) a wra ...                             Yes, he-she-it will ...

Bëdh, ev (hy) a vëdh

(y fëdh ev / hy) ow4 ...


Na vydn, ny vydn ev (hy) ...

Na wra, ny wra va (hy) ...                        No, he-she-it won’t ...

Na vëdh, ny vëdh ev (hy) ow4 ...

PATRONYS A GESCOWS


Y

 

Bos


Present                                                                 Present

Yns y ...?                                                                Are they ...?

Yns, ... yns y                                                        Yes, they are ...

Nag yns, nyns yns y ...                                     No, they are not ...

 

Usons y ...?                                                           Are they ...? (in a place)

Usons, ymowns y ...                                          Yes, they are ... (in a place)

Nag usons, nyns usons y ...                           No, they are not ... (in a place)

 

Termyn eus passys                                            Past

Êns y ...?                                                                Were they ...?

Êns, ... êns y                                                         Yes, they were ...

Nag êns, nyns êns y ...                                     No, they were not ...


Esens y ...?                                                           Were they ...? (in a place)

Esens, th’esens y ...                                           Yes, they were ... (in a place)

Nag esens, nyns esens y ...                            No, they were not ... (in a place)


A vowns y ...?                                                      Have they been ...?

Bowns, y re beu ...                                             Yes, they have been ...

Na vowns, ny vowns y ...                                No, they have not been ...


A vowns y ...?                                                      Had they been ...?

Bowns, y a veu (y fowns y) ...                       Yes, they had been ...

Na vowns, ny vowns y ...                                No, they had not been ...

 

Termyn a dheu                                                   Future

A vedhons y ...?                                                  Will they be ...?

Bedhons, y a vëdh (y fedhons y) ...            Yes, they will be ...

Na vedhons, ny vedhons y ...                         No, they will not be ...


Termyn ambosek                                               Conditional

A viens y ...?                                                         Would they be ...?

Biens, y a via (y fiens y) ...                                Yes, they would be ...

Na viens, ny viens y ...                                       No, they would not be ...

 
 

 

PATRONYS A GESCOWS


Y

 

Gwil nampyth (oll gans verb-hanow)


Present                                                   Present

Usons y ow4 ....?                                      Are they ...?

                                                                         Do they ...?

Usons, ymowns y ow4 ...                       Yes, they are ...

                                                                        Yes, they do ...

Nag usons, nyns usons y ow4 ...       No, they are not ...

                                                                        No, they do not ...


Termyn eus passys                                 Past

Esens y ow4 ...?                                       Were they ...?

Esens, th’esens y ow4 ...                       Yes, they were ...

Nag esens, nyns esens y ow4 ...        No, they were not ...


A wrussons y ...?                                     Did they ...?

                                                                       Have they ...?

Gwrussons, y a wrug ...                       Yes, they did ...

Gwrussons, y re wrug ...                      Yes, they have ...

Na wrussons, ny wrussons y ...        No, they did not ...

                                                                        No, they have not ...


Termyn a dheu                                       Future

A vydnons y ...?

A wrowns y ...?                                        Will they ...?

A vedhons y ow4 ...?


Mydnons, y a vydn ...

Gwrowns, y a wra ...                               Yes, they will ...

Bedhons, y a vëdh

(y fedhons y) ow4 ...


Na vydnons, ny vydnons y ...

Na wrowns, ny wrowns y ...                    No, they won’t ...

Na vedhons, ny vedhons y ow4 ...

PATRONYS A GESCOWS


TY HA MY

 

Gallos (oll gans verb-hanow)

Godhvos (gans verb-hanow = ‘know how to’)


Gallos: present                                       Can: present

A alla’vy ...?                                             Can I ...?

Gyllyth, te a yll (y hylta) ...                  Yes, you can ...

Na yllyth, ny ylta ...                               No, you cannot ...


A ylta ....?                                                Can you ...?

Galla’, me a yll  (y hallama) ...         Yes, I can ...

Na alla’, ny alla’vy ...                            No, I cannot ...


Gallos: termyn eus passys                     Can: past

A yllys jy ...?                                             Were you able to ...?

                                                                      Have you been able to ...?

Gyllyn, me a ylly (y hyllyn vy) ...        Yes, I was able to...

                                                                       Yes, I have been able to ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn vy ...                          No, I was not able to ...

                                                                      No, I have not been able to ...


Gallos: amser ambosek                         Can: conditional

A alses jy ...?                                            Would you be able to ...?

Galsen, me a alsa (y halsen vy) ...  Yes, I would be able to ...

Na alsen, ny alsen vy ...                       No, I would not be able to ...


Gallos: present                                       Know: present

A wosta?                                                 Do you know?

Gora’, me a wor                                    Yes, I know

Na wora’, ny worama (wòn)            No, I do not know


Gallos: termyn eus passys                     Know: past

A wodhyes jy?                                         Did you know?

Godhyen, me a wodhya                       Yes, I knew

Na wodhyen, ny wodhyen vy             No, I did not know

PATRONYS A GESCOWS


WHY HA NY

 

Gallos (oll gans verb-hanow)

Godhvos (gans verb-hanow = ‘know how to’)


Gallos: present                                       Can: present

A yllyn ny ...?                                              Can we ...?

Gyllowgh, why a yll (y hyllo’why) ...   Yes, you can ...

Na yllowgh, ny yllo’why ...                      No, you cannot ...


A yllo’why ....?                                         Can you ...?

Gyllyn, ny a yll (y hyllyn ny) ...           Yes, we can ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn ny ...                          No, we cannot ...


Gallos: termyn eus passys                     Can: past

A ylle’why ...?                                          Were you able to ...?

                                                                     Have you been able to ...?

Gyllyn, ny a ylly (y hyllyn ny) ...        Yes, we were able to...

                                                                     Yes, we have been able to ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn ny ...                        No, we were not able to ...

                                                                    No, we have not been able to ...


Gallos: amser ambosek                         Can: conditional

A alse’why ...?                                               Would you be able to ...?

Galsen, ny a alsa (y halsen ny) ...          Yes, we would be able to ...

Na alsen, ny alsen ny ...                             No, we would not be able to ...


Godhvos: present                                   Know: present

A wodho’why?                                        Do you know?

Godhyn, ny a wor                                  Yes, we know

Na wodhyn, ny wodhyn ny                No, we do not know


Godhvos: termyn eus passys                 Know: past

A wodhye’why?                                      Did you know?

Godhyen, ny a wodhya                       Yes, we knew

Na wodhyen, ny wodhyen ny            No, we did not know

Verbal Paradigms - Gallos, Gwil, Mydnas


Kernowek Standard Verbal Paradigms

Gallos – to be able

Care, no preterite verb for Gallos is attested in foundation texts

Present Future

gallaf

I can

gyllyth, gyllysta, gylta

You can

gyll, (gyllvyth (future only))

He can

gyll   (gyllvyth (future only))

She can

gyllyn

We can

gyllowgh

You can (plural, polite)

gyllons

They can


Imperfect

gyllyn

I was able

gyllys

You were able

gylly

He was able

gylly

She was able

gyllyn

We were able

gyllewgh

You were able

gyllens

They were able


Subjunctive

gallen

I may be able

galles, gylly

You may be able

galla

He may be able

galla

She may be able

gallon

We may be able

gallowgh

You may be able

gyllens

They may be able


Conditional

galsen, galjen

I could/would be able

galses, galjes

You could/would be able

galsa, galja

He could/would be able

galsa, galja

She could/would be able

galsen, galjen

We could/would be able

galsewgh, galjewgh

You could/would be able

galsens, galjens

They could/would be able


Gwil, Gul – to do or make

Present Future

gwrav, gwrama

I / I will do or make

gwres, gwreth, gwreta

You / you will do or make

gwra

He/ he will do or make

gwra

She/ she will do or make

gwren

We/ we will do or make

gwreugh

You/ you will do or make

gwrowns

They/ they will do or make


Impefect

gwren

I did or made

gwres

You did or made

gwre

He did or made

gwre

She did or made

gwren

We did or made

gwreugh

You did or made

gwrens

They did or made


Preterite

gwrug, gwrugaf

I did or made

gwrussys gwrusta

You did or made

gwrug, gwras

He did or made

gwrug, gwras

She did or made

gwrussyn

We did or made

gwrussough, Gwrugough why

You did or made

gwrussons, gwrug anjy

They did or made


Conditional

gwrussen

I could/would do or make

gwrusses

You could/would do or make

gwrussa

He could/ would do or make

gwrussa

She could/would do or make

gwrussen

We could/would do or make

gwrusseugh

You could/would do or make

gwrussens

They could/would do or make

Imperative



gwra

You do/make!

gwrens

He must do or make!

gwrens

She must Do or make

gwren

We must do or make

gwreugh

You must do or make

gwrens

They must do or make


Mydnas, Mednas – to wish or to want

Present Future

manaf, madnaf, mydnaf

I wish/want

mydnys, mynta, menta

You wish/want

mydn, medn

He wishes/wants

mydn, medn

She wishes/wants

mydnyn, mednyn

We wish/want

mydnowgh, mednowgh

You wish/want

mydnons, mednons

They wish/want


Imperfect

mydn, mednen

I wished/wanted

mydnes, mednes

You wished/wanted

mydna, medna

He wished/wanted

mydna, medna

She wished/wanted

mydnen, mednen

We wished/wanted

mydnewgh, mednewgh

You wished/wanted

mydnens, mednens

They wished/wanted


Preterite

mydnys

I wished/wanted

mynsys

You wished/wanted

mydnas, medna

He wished/wanted

mydnas, medna

She wished/wanted

mydnen, mednen

We wished/wanted

mydnewgh, mensewgh

You wished/wanted

mydnens, mednens

They wished/wanted


Subjunctive

meden, mydnyf

I may wish/want

mednes, mynhy

You may wish/want

mydna, mynho

He may wish/want

mydna, mynho

She may wish/want

mednyn

We may wish/want

mednowgh

You may wish/want

mednons

They may wish/want


Conditional

mensen, menjen

I could/would wish/want

menses, menjes

You could/would wish/want

mensa, menja

He could/would wish/want

mensa, menja

She could/would wish/want

mensen, menjen

We could/would wish/want

mensewgh, menjewgh

You could/would/wish/want

mensens, menjens

They could/would wish/want


Mos, mones – to go

Present Future

av, ama

I go, I will go

ȇth

You go, you will go

ȃ

He goes, he will go

en

She goes, she will go

en

We go, we will go

ewgh

You go, you will go

ȏns

They go, they will go


Imperfect

en

I went

es

You went

ȇ

He went

ȇ

She went

en

We went

ewgh

You went

ȇns

They went


Preterite

ȇth

I went

ȇthys

You went

ȇth

He went

ȇth

She went

ethyn

We went

ethowgh

You went

ethons

They went


Subjunctive

ellen, yllyf

I may go

elles, ylly

You may go

ella

He may go

ella

She may go

ellen

We may go

ellowgh

You may go

ellons

They may go


Conditional of this verb is not attested in foundation texts

Imperative



You must go

ȇns

He must go

ȇns

She must go

deun

We must go

Ewgh, kewgh

You must go

ȇns

They must go


Dos, Dones – to come

Present Future

deuv,dov,deuma, deuaf

I come, I will come

deth.deta, deuves

You come, You will come

deu,deuva,

He comes, He will come

deu,deuva

She comes, She will come

deun,deuvyn

We come, We will come

dewgh,deuthowgh

You come, You will come

downs,deuvons

They come, They will come


Preterite

deuth

I came

deuthys

You came

deuth

He came

deuth

She came

deuthen

We came

deuthowgh

You came

deuthons

They came


Subjunctive

deffen, dyffyf

I may come

deffes, dyffy

You may come

deffa, deffo

He may come

deffa, deffo

She may come

deffen

We may come

deuvowgh

You may come

deffons

They may come


Conditional

dothyen

I would/could come

dothyes

You would/could come

dothya

He would/could come

dothya

She would/could come

dothyen

We would/could come

dothyowgh

You would/could come

dothyens

They would/could come


Imperative



deus, des

You must come

deuns

He must come

deuns

She must come

deun

We must come

dewgh

You must come

deuns

They must come


There is no attested imperfect for the verb Dos

How to say "This" and "That"



This and That

This:

To express an object as “This” we need to put “an” before the object and “ma” after. For example:

Maw – a boy, is amended to “an maw ma” which makes the phrase “this boy”

Benyn – a woman, is amended to “an venyn ma” which makes the phrase “this woman” Note in this case “Benyn” is feminine (benow) and “an” creates a soft mutation and so becomes “an venyn”


That:

To express an object as “That” we need to put “an” before the object and “na” after, For example:

Gwely – a bed, is amended to “an gwely na” which makes the phrase “that bed”

Pluven – a pen, is amended to “an bluven na” which makes the phrase “that pen” Note again in this case Pluven is feminine (benow) and singular and “an” before it creates a soft mutation and so becomes “bluven”

Examplys Moy ( more examples):

Tesen (f) – a cake – an desen ma – This cake

Den (m) – a man – an den ma – This man

Chycock (f) – a house martin – an jycock ma – This house martin

Gool (m) – a sail – an gool ma – This sail

 

Qwylkyn (m) – a frog – an qwylkyn na – That frog

Gwelen (f) – a stick – an welen na – That stick

Pons (m) – a bridge – an pons na – That bridge

Davas (f) – a sheep – an dhavas na – That sheep



Soft Mutations:

                  To:

B

V

C,K

G

CH

J

D

G

G

-,W

GW

W

M

V

P

B

QU

GW

T

D

F

V


 

Questions & Answers


Govyn - Question

Pёth yw? - What is it?

Pёth yw hedna? - What is that? (M)

Pёth yw hobma? - What is this? (F)

Pёth yw an re ma? - What are these?

Pёth yw an re na? - What are those?

Fatla genes? - How is it with you?

Yw hebma ...........? (M) - is this a ....... ?

Yw hobma ......... ? (F) - is this a ......... ?

Yw hedna ........ ? (M) - is that a .........?

Yw hodna ........ ? (F) - is that a .......... ?


Gorthyp - Answer

Pluven yw - it is a pen

Hēn yw car - that is a car

Hōm yw lyver - that is a book

Kertys yw an re ma - these are lorries

Gweliow yw an re na - those are beds

Dȃ lowr ov vy - I am ok

Hēm yw den - this is a man

Hōm yw an vordh - this is the road

Hēn yw den - that is a man

Hōm yw an vordh - that is the road


Govynadow sempel - Simple questions:

1.

Pёth yw? – What is it?

To answer you identify the object followed by “yw” (it be)

Cath yw – a cat it is

Gwely yw – a bed it is

2.

 Yw cath? – is it a cat?

Yw, cath yw – Yes, it is a cat

Yw gwely? – Is it a bed

Yw, gwely yw – Yes, it is a bed

Remember if “Yw” is before the object (Yw cath?) it is always a question, if it comes after the object (Cath yw) it is a statement. In the answers above the first “Yw” only means yes.

3.

If you want to answer the question in the negative the main phrase to remember is –

Nag yw, nyns yw – No, it is not

Example:

Nag yw nyns yw cath, gwely yw – no it is not a cat it is a bed

“Nag yw, nyns yw” is important to remember as it is used in many negative answers.

4.

What is this?

Pёth yw hobma? – What is this? (female object)

Hom yw cath – this is a cat or Cath yw hobma – a cat this is

Pёth yw hebma? – What is that? (male object)

Hem yw gwely – This is a bed or Gwely yw hebma – a bed is this

Remember if you are unsure if the object is male or female use the male form as more Cornish words are male.

Yw hebma gwely? – Is this a bed

Yw, gwely yw hebma – Yes, this is a bed

Nag yw, nyns yw hebma gwely – No, this is not a bed


Yw hobma cath? – Is this a cat

Yw, cath yw hobma – Yes, this is a cat

Nag yw, nyns yw hobma cath – No, this is not a cat

5.

What is that?

Pёth yw hodna? – What is that? (female object)

Hon yw cath – That is a cat or Cath yw hodna – a cat that is

Nag yw, nyns yw hodna cath – No, that is not a cat


Pёth yw hedna? – What is that? (male object)

Hen yw gwely – That is a bed or Gwely yw hedna – a bed that is

Nag yw, nyns yw gwely – No, that is not a bed


Yw hodna cath? – Is that a cat

Yw, cath yw hodna or Yw, hon yw cath – Yes, that is a cat

Nag yw, nyns yw hodna cath – No, that is not a cat



Yw hedna gwely? – Is that a bed?

Yw, gwely yw hedna  or Yw, hen yw gwelly– Yes, that is a bed

Nag yw, nyns yw hedna gwely – No, that is not a bed



Days, Months, Dates, Seasons



Days of the Week

de Lun

de Merth

de Merher

de Yow

de Gwener

de Sadorn

de Sul


Months  of the Year

mis Genver

mis Whevrel

mis merth

mis Ebril

mis Mȇ

Methven, mis Efen

mis Gortheren

mis Est

mis Gwyngala

mis Hedra

mis Du

mis Kevardhu


Ordinal Numbers

1st  kensa

2nd  secùnd, nessa

3rd  tressa

4th  peswora

5th  pympes

6th  whegves

7th  seythves

8th  ethves

9th  nawves

10th  degves

11th  unegves

12th  dewdhegves

13th  tredhegves

14th  peswardhegves

15th  pymthegves

16th  whȇteves

17th  seytegves

18th  ȇtegves

19th  nawnjegves

20th  ugansves

21st  kensa warn ugans

22nd  secund warn ugans

30th  degves warn ugans

40th  dew ugansves

50th  hanter-cansves

60th  try ugansves

70th  deg ha try ugansves

100th cansves

1000th  milves

100,000th  milvilves


Seasons

Gwaynten – Spring

Hȃv – Summer

Kyndnaf – Autumn

Gwȃv - Winter





Numbers


Nyverow

1  onen / Udn

2  dew2, dyw2 (F)

3  try3, teyr3 (F)

4  peswar, peder (F)

5  pymp

6  whegh

7  seyth

8  eth

9  naw

10  deg

11  udnek

12  dewdhek

13  tredhek

14  peswardhek

15  pymthek

16  whȇtek

17  seytek

18  ȇtek

19  nawnjeck

20  ugans

21  onen warn ugans

30  deg warn ugans

31  udnek warn ugans

40  dewgans

41 onen ha dew ugans

50 hanter-cans

51 udnek ha dew ugans

60 try ugans

61 onen ha try ugans

70 deg ha try ugans

71 udnek ha try ugans

80  peswar ugans

81 onen ha peswar ugans

90  deg ha peswar ugans

91  udnek ha peswar ugans

100  cans

101 cans hag onen

120  whegh ugans

130  deg ha whegh ugans

140  seyth ugans

150  cans ha hanter-cans

160  eth ugans

170  deg hag eth ugans

180 naw ugans

200  dew cans

1000  mil

100,000  milvil


Important things to remember:

  • When using numbers in Kernowek, it does not matter how many of the objects there are, the objects are always expressed in singular and not plural form, for example the plural of “ky” (dog) is “keun” (dogs), however 10 dogs are expressed as “deg ky” (10 dog) and never “deg keun”.You would say “an keun an re na” for those dogs.


  • Numbers in Kernowek unlike in Sowsnek are expressed in multiples of twenty. For example, 20 is “ugans”, 40 is “dew ugans” (two twenties), 60 is “try ugans”, 80 is “peswar ugans” etc. Numbers between 20 and 40 are counted as “warn ugans” (on twenty) for example 25 is “pymp warn ugans” (5 on twenty) and 35 as “pympthek warn ugans” (15 on twenty). After forty numbers are expressed as “ha dewgans” for example 45 is “pymp ha dew ugans” (5 and two twenties) ,55 is “pympthek ha dew ugans” (fifteen and two twenties), 65 is “pymp ha try ugans” (five and three twenties) and 75 is “pympthek ha try ugans” (fifteen and three twenties) etc.


  • "Onen" is used when counting and "Udn" when it comes before a noun. "Udn" creates a soft/second mutation when followed by a feminine  noun


  • Numbers 2,3 and 4 in Kernowek have a masculine (Gorow) and feminine (Benow) version, and conform to whether the object is masculine or feminine. Two is either Dew (gorow) or Dyw (benow), Three is either Try (gorow) or Teyr (benow), Four is Peswar (gorow) or Peder (benow). 


  • The feminine and masculine versions of “two”  create a soft/second mutation (in line with the normal rules) for example "Dyw pluven" or "Dew vebyon"


  • The feminine and masculine versions of "three" create a "third" mutation for example "Teyr fluven" 


  • The feminine versions are only used in front of a noun. When the numeral is used alone, even if it refers to a feminine, the masculine form is used.





Literature available in Standard Cornish



Literature available from Agan Tavas:  https://www.agantavas.com/ 


An Nawnjek Stap Warn Ugans




Gerva - A downloadable "Gerva" is available on this site for use in conjunction with this translation


John Buchan

AN NAWNJEK STAP WARN UGANS

Kernowek gans

Ian Jackson


E-dhyllys gans

kernoweklulyn.com


Kensa dyllans / First published 1915

Mamdytel / Original title The Thirty-Nine Steps

Trailyans / Translation © 2019 Ian Jackson


Pùb gwir gwethys. Nyns yw an pùblycacyon-ma dhe redya marnas wàr wiasva kernoweklulyn.com – ny yll radn vëth anodho naneyl bos copies, sensys aberth in ken system dascafos na treuscorrys in form vëth oll na dre vain vëth oll, poken electronek, jynweythek, dre fotocopians, dre recordyth bò fordh vëth aral, heb recêva cubmyas dhyrag dorn dhyworth an trailyor.

All rights reserved. This publication is exclusively for reading on the website kernoweklulyn.com – no part of it may be reproduced, stored in another retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise whatsoever, without prior permission of the translator.


Olsettyans gans an trailyor in Palatino Linotype.

Typeset by the translator in Palatino Linotype.


E-dhyllys gans            kernoweklulyn.com (Viv Taskis)

E-published by             Ranjy A, 37 Bre an Eglos

Flat A, 37 Church Hill

Hellys / Helston

Kernow / Cornwall

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Lymnans                     Nigel Roberts

Illustration

 

A note on the Cornish in this e-book

The Cornish of the translation takes William Jordan’s Gwrians an Bÿs as its ‘foundation text’, while looking forward to John Keigwin, William Rowe and Nicholas Boson, and back to John Tregear, Sacrament an Alter, Bêwnans Ke, and Bêwnans Meriasek.


Spellings are those of Standard Cornish (‘Kernowek Standard’ or ‘KS’). This orthography was developed under the leadership of Michael Everson in close cooperation with Professor Nicholas Williams. It aims for spellings that are as unambiguous as possible in their representation of the sounds of Cornish, and which at the same time remain faithful to the forms we encounter in the traditional Cornish texts – since these are our chief source for the language.


The whole corpus of traditional Cornish has been used to enlarge the vocabulary. This has been a necessary principle of the revival from the outset. For words and phrases that are not in Gerlyver Kescows, see the separate Glossary that accompanies this e-book; the Glossary may be downloaded in portable document format (pdf).


Constructive suggestions to correct or improve the Cornish in this book, or to correct or supplement the Glossary, may be emailed to the translator: iacobianus@googlemail.com

 

CONTENS


      1                 An den hag a veu marow

      2                 An lethor ow tallath dh’y viajys

      3                 Aneth an tavernor lienak

      4                 Aneth an radycal ombrofyor

      5                 Aneth oberwas an fordh ha spectaclys ganso

      6                 Aneth an hendyscansyth mol

      7                 An pescador pluv sëgh

      8                 Devedhyans a’n Men Du

      9                 An nawnjek stap warn ugans

      10  Lower person ow keskeverya dhe’n mor

 

DHE

THOMAS ARTHUR NELSON

(MARHOGYON LÔTHYAN HA’N OR)

 

A TOMMY WHEG,

Ny re garas nans yw pell, agan dew, pùb whedhel a’n sort elvednek, cries mesk Amerycans an ‘dime novel’ ha besydhys an ‘shocker’ i’n pow-ma – romans may ma wharvedhyans ow tefia lycklod, hag ow kerdhes bys in very cûr an possybyl. Pàn y’m bo cleves, gwâv passys, wosa redya oll ow creun a’n darbar lowender-na, y feuma constrînys dhe screfa whedhel dhybmo vy ow honen. Sewyans yw an lyvryn usy inter dha dhewla, ha my whensys dhe worra dha hanow warnodho, dre gov agan felshyp hir, i’n termyn mayth yw fancys, gwyls teg aga gnas, meur moy gwirhaval ès an fethyow.

                                                                                                                                                J.B.

 

CHAPTRA 1

AN DEN HAG A VEU MAROW


Me a wrug dewheles dhia’n Cyta i’n dohajëdh-na a vis Mê, ogas dhe deyr eur, leun a dhyflassys a’m beweth. Yth esen vy i’n Wlas Coth nans o tremis, ha sqwith glân en vy anedhy solabrës. Mara pe nebonen ow targana bledhen alebma my dhe vos in cher kepar, me a vensa y sensy gesyor; saw feth o. Th’en vy bystlek drefen an gewer, th’esa cows an Sowson gemyn ow qwil wheja dhybm, nyns esa omassayans lowr dhe’m corf, ha pùb solas Loundres o maga farow, dhe’m breus vy, avell dowr sôda gesys dhe bowes i’n howl. “Richard Hannay,” yn medhaf, ha hebma yn fenowgh, “crambla a wrussys, a vab, dhe’n cledh cabm, ha res porres yw crambla in mes.”

Brathy min a vydnen pàn esen vy owth ombredery wàr oll ow forposys formyes i’n dewetha bledhydnyow in Bùlawayo. Orth kevoth an empîr me a gùntellas ow radn dhybmo – nyns o hy onen a’n radnow brâs, mès dâ lowr i’m golok vy; ha me a wrug desmygy lower maner a gafos plesour. Ow thas a’m dros, whegh bloodh, mes a Scotlond, ha bythqweth ny veuv vy devedhys tre a’y wosa; ytho Englond o neb Mil Nosweyth hag Onen dhybm, dell hevelly, ha my ow qwetyas trega ino yn parhus.

Saw i’n very dallath yth en vy tùllys anodho. Kyns pedn seythen th’en vy sqwith a weles tyleryow meur gà hanow, ha kyns pedn mis y’m bo gwalgh a’n bêwnans bosty ha gwaryjy ha resekva mergh. Ny’m bo mâta vëth dhe bassya termyn ganso, pëth o skyla dhe’m awher, pùb lycklod. Sompnys en vy dhe vysytya showr a bobel i’ga chy, saw nyns êns y kemerys yn frâs genef, dell o apert. Y fedhens y ow qwil nebes qwestyonow gwallus, tùchyng Afryca Soth, ena trailya dh’aga negys arta gà honen. Th’esa benenes Emprorethek pals orth ow gelwel dhe brës tê rag metya gans descadoryon a Sêlond Nowyth ha penscreforyon a Vancouver, ha hèn o an dra dhyflassa oll. Otta vy obma, seytek bloodh warn ugans, yagh i’m anal ha’m esyly, ha mona lowr genef rag lowenhe, ow tianowy gogo efan pùb dëdh. Ervirys veuv vy, ogatty, rag scappya dhe’n glasweltir arta, awos my dhe vos, i’n Wlascor Unyes, an den moyha ancombrys.

I’n dohajëdh-na my êth ha vexya ow mainor arhansek adro dhe’m kevarhow, may fe nampyth dhe wonys i’m brës, ha wàr ow fordh tre my a drailyas adenewen dhe’m clùb – th’o dewotty, res alowa, hag ev owth acceptya tus Wlasva. Me a gemeras dewas hir, ha redya an paperyow androw. Leun êns y a’n gedrydn i’n Ÿst Ogas, hag yth esa artykyl ow tùchya Carolydes, an Pedn-venyster Grêk. Pollat dâ lowr o va i’m estêm vy. Herwyth pùb derivas, nyns esa onen wordhy in oll an show saw ev yn unsel; ha dres hedna, th’esa va ow qwary teg, ha scant ny yller leverel ma’s nahen a’n re erel. Dell wodhyen vy, hâtyes o va yn hager-dewl in Berlîn hag in Viena, saw th’esen nyny determys dhe vos len dhodho, hag udn paper owth afydhya nag esa baryas vëth inter Ewrop ha Har Magedon lemen ev. Dell eus cov genef, th’esa qwestyon i’m pedn mar kyllyn vy cafos neb soodh i’n côstys-na. Th’esa argraf dhybm bos Albânya neb tyller gwyw may fydna den mos ha hepcor dianowyans oll.

Whegh eur, aderdro, my êth tre, omwysca, kynyewel i’n Café Royal, ha vysytya hel ilow. Show gocky o, benenes ow lappya, ha gwer sym aga vysach, ha bohes termyn th’esen vy ena. Ebron an nos o clor ha cler pàn esen vy ow kerdhes tre, dhe’m ranjy gobrenys ogas dhe Portland Place. Th’esa an rûth owth herdhya wàr leghveyn an cauns dresto’vy, leun a froth ha cows, ha my ow perthy envy a’n bobel rag anjy dhe vos bysy teg. Mowysy shoppys ha scrifwesyon, an dus payon ha’n greswesyon, th’esa gansa neb les i’ga bêwnans rag gwil pêsya dhedha. Me a ros hanter-cùrun dhe veggyor pàn wruga’ gweles dell esa va ow tianowy; kessùffror o hedna. Orth Oxford Circus me a veras in bàn, wàr an ebron a waynten, ha leverel ly solempna. Me a vydna ry dhe’n Wlas Coth udn jëdh moy, may halla gorra nampyth dhybm; mara ny wharva tra vëth, me a vydna kemeres trumach dhe Bow an Penrin i’n nessa gorhal.

Th’esa ow ranjy an kensa leur in byldyans nowyth adrëv Langham Place. Th’esa stairys kemyn, ha porthor ha den iskydnor i’n entryng, saw nyns esa bosty pò haval vëth, ha pùb ranjy o degës qwit in y honen. Cas yw servons anedhys genef, ytho me a’m bo gwas rag ow cherya vy, hag ev heb lavurya ma’s i’n jëdh. Y fedha ow tos kyns eth eur pùb myttyn hag ow tepartya seyth eur gordhuwher, rag nyns esen vy ow kynyewel i’n chy bythqweth.

Th’esen vy i’n very gwrians a dhesedha an alwheth i’n daras pàn wruga’ merkya den orth ow fenelyn. Ny wruga’ gweles y dhevedhyans, ha my ow plynchya orth y fygùr rybo’ mar sodyn. Den moon o va, ha barv got a vlew gorm ganso, ha dewlagas sherp ha blou ha bian. Me a’n aswonys, dell o va tregor udn ranjy wàr an leur awartha, ha my orth y salujy neb treveth kyns.

“Alla’vy cows genowgh?” yn medh. “Alla’vy dos ajy rag tecken?” Th’esa va ow qwetha y lev gans caletter rag crena, ha’y dhorn ow qwil pawa wàr ow bregh.

Pàn wrugaf egery an daras, me a sînas dhodho, entra may halla. Kettel veu va dres an treuthow, ev êth ha fysky dhe’m rom dhelergh, mayth en vy ûsys dhe vegy ha dhe screfa lytherow. Ena ev a dheuth in udn wybya dhybm arta.

“Yw an daras in dadn alwheth?” ev a wovydnas yn fevrus, hag ev ow lacya an chain gans y dhorn y honen.

“Drog yw genama glân,” yn medh, uvel y vaner. “Favour brâs re wruga’ govyn, saw why yw den, a’gas syght, a wor convedhes. Th’esewgh i’m preder oll an seythen, abàn gefys vy trobel. Now, a vydnowgh why gwil torn dâ dhybm?”

“Parys oma dhe woslowes orthowgh,” yn medhaf. “Heb dedhewy moy.” Anies veuv vy solabrës dre fara coynt an gwesyk nervus-ma.

Yth esa servyour a dhewosow wàr an tâbel ryptho, may whrug ev lenwel dowr tobm Alban ha sôda ino. Ev a’n evas, try therlonk, ha terry an wedren crack pàn y’s gorras dhe’n bord.

“Pardon,” yn medh. “Tabm amayes ov vy haneth. Dell yw happyes, i’n eur-ma, a worowgh? th’ov yn farow.”

Esedhys veuma wàr ow hadar vrehek ha tùchya ow fib.

“Fatl’yw hedna dhe omglôwes?” me a wovydnas. Certan en vy lebmyn dell esa den muscok obma, ha res o dhybm y dhyghtya.

Minwharth a flyckras dres y vejeth gwydnyk. “Muscok nyns ov vy màn – na whath. Now, aspia a wrugaf ortho’why, ha my ow rekna why dhe vos pollat neb â wàr y gàm. Ow rekna inwedh dell owgh why onen onest, heb own a wary dornas hardh. Me a wra kyfy dhywgh. Othem a’m beus a weres, possa othem ès dell esa dhe dhen bythqweth, ha res yw dhybm surhe y halla’vy scodhya warnowgh.”

“Gwrewgh derivas gàs whedhel,” yn medhaf, “ena me a lever dhywgh.”

Ev a wrug crefhe y honen, dell hevelly, rag strîvyans brâs, ena dallath clatter a’n coynta. Me a wrug fyllel a’y gonvedhes i’n kensa prës, ha res o dhybm govyn hedhy ha styryans. Otta ascorn an câss:

Amerycan o va, dhia Kentùcky, ha wosa y benscolyans ha dâ y begans, ev a vedra gweles an bÿs efan. Ev a screfas nebes, hag obery avell gohebyth bresel dhe neb jornal in Chycâgo, ha passya bledhen pò dew in Ewrop a’n Soth-Ÿst. Dell o apert, yethor spladn o va, hag aswon an gowethas i’n côstys-na yn tâ lowr. Th’esa ow côwsel meur y wodhvos a lies hanow a welys vy, ha cov dhybm whath, i’n paperyow nowodhow.

Ev a wrug mellya gans an wlasegeth, dell lavaras, rag hy dhe vos a les wàr an dallath, a’y wosa dre rêson na ylly ev hepthy. Dell esen vy orth y vrusy, ev o pollat lybm ha dybowes, porposys pùb termyn dhe hedhes bys in gwrëdh an mater. Ev a wrug hedhes nebes hirra inans ès dell esa cùssel dhâ ganso.

Th’eso’vy ow tascor an pëth a dherivas ev kebmys dell wrugaf ùnderstondya. Adrëv kenyver Governans hag oll an luyow ervys yth esa môvyans brâs in dadn gel, devîsys gans tus pòr beryllys. An den-ma a’n cafas dre wall; dynyes o va ganso; ev êth pelha; ena ev a veu kychys. Dell wruga’ convedhes, anarkystyon dheskys o an moyha radn a’n dus ino, a’n sort plegys dhe wil wheldroyow, saw yth esa arhansoryon inwedh, ow qwary rag mona. Gwainya prow brâs a yll den conyng in marhas eus ow codha, ha porpos pùbonen a’n dhew rencas-ma o domhel oll Ewrop.

Ev a dherivas lower coyntys, hag y ow styrya cals a daclow o penpleth dhybm kyns – wharvosow in Bresel an Balcanyow, fatell veu udn stât conqwerrour desempys, prag y feu pùb kefrysyans gwrës ha dyswrës, prag yth êth certan tus mes a wel, hag a ble teuth pùb giewen an vresel. Meder oll an bras o settya Rùssya ha Jermany an eyl warbydn y gela.

Pàn wovydnys vy praga, ev a lavaras bos breus gans an bagas anarkyst dell ylly hedna ry spâss dhe weythres. Y fedha pùptra i’n tedhlester, hag anjy intentys dhe weles bÿs nowyth ow tos anodho in mes. Y fedha an gevalavoryon ow crafa shekels pals, hag ow prena oll an browsyon in udn wil fortyn. Kevalaf ny’s teva keskians, yn medh, na mamvro naneyl. Ha pelha, th’esa an Yêdhow sevys in hy hilva, ha’n Yêdhow owth hâtya Rùssya lacka ès iffarn y honen.

“Eus marth dhywgh?” ev a grias. “Dres try cans bledhen yth yns y tormentys, ha hebma yw an gam wàr dhelergh wosa an pogromys. Yma an Yêdhow in pùb plâss, saw res yw mos dhe’n stairys dhelergh, ha pell wàr nans, rag y drouvya. Kemerowgh kenyver onen in mesk cowethasow kenwerthek brâs a’n Tewtonas in ensompel. Pàn vydno’why gwil negys orthy, an kensa den dell wrewgh metya yw Pryns von und zu Neppyth, den yonk ha jentyl, ow côwsel Sowsnek Eton-Harrow. Saw nyns yw ev gwarior a vry. Mars yw gàs negys brâs, why a wra mos adrëv dhodho ha cafos Westfâlyan, balek y jalla, kil-ledrek y dâl, ha’y vanerow kepar ha fara hogh. Ev yw an den negys Alman usy ow qwil crena dhe baperyow an Sowson. Saw mars eus dhywgh chyffar a’n brâssa ehen, mayth yw res bargednya gans an very mêster y honen, why a dheu ha dierbydna, chauns deg worth onen, Yêdhow bian, gwydn y fâss, esedhys wàr gadar Bath, ha lagas nader ruglen ino. Eâ, sera, hèn yw an den usy ow rêwlya an bÿs i’n present termyn, ha’y gollel yw pychys in Empîr an Sar, drefen y das dhe vos scorjys ha’y vodryp outrayes in neb pendra udn margh ryb an Volga.”

Ny yllyn vy hepcor leverel nag esa sowynyans teg dh’y anarkystyon Yêdhowek i’n tor’-ma.

“Nag eus, hag eus defry,” yn medh. “Anjy a wrug gwainya neb gradh, saw bonkya warbydn tra yw brâssa ès mona, tra na yller y brena, anyen omlath coth a vab den. Bos ledhys mars yw gàs peryl, desmygy neb baner, neb gwlas a vydnowgh, ha batalyas abarth dhedha, ha mars owgh a’y wosa yn few, alena in rag y fedhowgh warnodhans dôtys oll. An soudoryon-ma, dewolow wocky, re gafas neptra usons ow cara, ha hedna a wrug omwheles pùb devîs dâ in Berlîn ha Viena. Saw whath ny worras ow hothmans aga dewetha carten i’n gwary – cabmen na wrussons. An âss, yma ev cudhys i’ga brehal, ha mara ny alla’vy gortos yn few dres an mis a dheu, anjy a vydn y settya trigh dhe’n tâbel.”

“Saw dell esof ow convedhes, why yw yn farow,” me a lavaras in udn woderry y gows.

Mors janua vitae,” yn medh ha minwherthyn. [“Mernans: an porth dhe vêwnans” (lavar coth an Frankmasons)]  (Aswonys o an devyn dhybm: scant ny wodhyen vy Latyn vëth dresto.) “Me a wra y glerhe, saw res yw desky showr a daclow dhywgh yn kensa. Mars eso'why ow redya gàs baper nowodhow, nyns yw Constantyn Carolydes hanow ùncoth dell dyba’?”

Esedhys veuv vy serth dewhans, rag me a redyas anodho i’n very dohajëdh-na.

“Ev yw an den re wrug myshevya oll aga gwary. Ev yw an brâssa brës i’n holl show, ha den onest kefrës, dre hap. Ytho wàr rol an negys re beu moldrans nans yw dewdhek mis. Me a dhyskevras hedna – heb caletter, rag y hyll pùb den fol desmygy kebmys. Saw me a dhyskevras an fordh dôwlys dh’y wil inwedh, ha mortal veu an godhvos-na. Hèn yw skyla dhe’m tremen.”

Ev a wrug kemeres secùnd dewas, ha my orth y gemysky ragtho, awos bos an brybour owth higedna wortyweth wàr ow fancy.

“Y ladha ny yllons in y bow y honen, rag yma gwethysy a Epyrôtas ganso a’n sort parys dhe dhyscrohedna dama wydn. Saw an 15ves mis Efen y fëdh ev ow vysytya an dre-ma. Hag yma ûsadow nowyth dhe’n Sodhva Dramor Vretednek: gelwel tus kesgwlasek dhe gyffewy tê, ha’n brâssa kyffewy trevnys dhe’n dedhyans-na. Now, Carolydes yw sur an chif-ôstyas, ha mar teu ow hothmans ha spêdya dell yns y whensys dhe wil, nefra nyns â va tre dh’y dhinasydhyon garadow.”

“Hèn yw sempel lowr, neb cor,” yn medha’. “Gwrewgh y warnya ha’y wetha chy.”

“Ha degemeres aga rewlys ynsy?” ev a wovydnas sherp. “Mar ny dheu va, vyctory a vëdh dhedhans y, rag ny yll den vëth ma’s ev dygabma oll an dhol. Ha mars yw y Wovernans gwarnyes, dos ny vydn an den, rag na wor ev kebmys a vëdh gaja an gwary fèst uhel i’n 15ves mis Efen.”

“Pandr’orth an Governans Bretednek?” yn medha’. “Ny vydnons y gasa ôstysy dhe voldroryon. Gwrewgh sîna dhedha, hag anjy a wra gorqwetha dhe voy.”

“Prow vëth. Mara pêns y ow stoffya dha dre-ma leun a helerhysy hag ow tobla an creslu, y fia Constantyn onen marow ha deu bytegyns. Nyns usy ow hothmans i’n hapwary-ma rag gwainya whegydnow. Ocasyon a vry, hèn yw gà whans rag cowlwil an ladhans, hag oll Ewrop orth y lagata. An moldror a vëdh Awstryan, ha plenta vëdh an dùstuny rag dysqwedhes scodhyans kel a’n vrâsyon in Viena hag in Berlîn. Gow iffarnak vëdh hedna, sur, mès an câss a wra hevelly du lowr dhe’n bÿs. Nyns yw ow geryow air tobm, sera, an devîs melygys-ma yw godhvedhys dhybm in oll y vanylyon, ha my owth afydhya dhywgh fatell vëdh an purra drog-galneth wosa termyn an Borgias. Saw ny wher mars eus den, onen ow convedhes rosow an bras, knack obma in Loundres an 15ves mis Efen, yn few. Ha’n den-na, y fëdh ev agas servont, Franklin P. Scudder.”

Tabm ha tabm, th’esa an gwesyk ow plegya dhybm. Degës veu y dhewawen kepar ha maglen logas brâs, hag yth esa tan a vatel in y lagasow lybm. Mars o va rackor a whedhlow gwag, th’o mêster a’n waryva kefrës.

“Ple whrusso’why dyskevra an story-ma?” me a wovydnas.

“An kensa hynt a gefys vy in tavern ryb an Achensee in Tyrol. Hèn o dallath an helgh, hag assembla toknys erel an câss a wrug avy in shoppa pelour i’n qwartron Galycyan in Bùda, in Clùb Estrenyon in Viena, hag in gwerthjy bian a lyvrow ogas dhe’n Racknitzstrasse in Leipzig. Me a wrug collenwel oll an dùstuny deg dëdh alebma in Parys. Ny alla’vy derivas an manylyon i’n eur-ma, rag istory hir lowr ywa. Pàn veuv vy perswâdys a’m tybyans yn tien, me a wodhya convedhes dell o res dhybm dysapperya, ha dos dhe’n dre-ma wàr fordh dhydro ha coynt dres ehen. Pàn wruga’ dyberth orth Parys, th’en vy Frank-Amerycan yonk ha fascyonus; pàn gemerys vy trumach mes a Hamborg, th’en vy marchont Yêdhowek in chyffar adamans. In Norwey th’en vy studhyor Sows a scrifow Ibsen, cùntellor a dhefnyth rag arethyow, saw pàn wruga’ dyberth orth Bergen th’en vy den gwaya-mir a fylmys sky-resek specyal. Ha me a dheuth obma dhyworth Leith gans lower kydnyk glus predn i’m pocket rag profya dhe’n paperyow nowodhow in Loundres. Bys de, dyscleryes veu pùb ol genef yn tâ, dell hevelly, ha my lowen teg. Ena ...”

Dystemprys veu va, dell hevelly, orth cov a’n dra, hag ev a wrug terlenky nebes moy a’n dowr tobm.

“Ena me a aspias den a’y sav i’n strêt ryb an byldyans-ma wàr ves. Gortos clos i’m rom my a wrug ûsya der an jëdh, heb walkya an dre ma’s i’n tewlder rag our pò dew. Th’esen vy orth y aspia pols dâ dre’m fenester, hag orth y aswon, dell dybys ... Ev a dheuth ajy ha côwsel orth an porthor ... Pàn veuv vy devedhys newher a’m kerdh dhe’n chy, me a gafas carten i’m lythergyst. Warnedhy th’esa hanow an den ov vy lyha whensys dh’y vetya i’n oll an bÿs gwrës gans Duw.”

Heb dhowt, tremyn ha syght ow howeth, an ewn euth noth wàr y fâss, y feu ow surneth a’y onester collenwys dredha. Nebes lebmys veu ow lev ow honen pàn wovydnys pëth a wrug ev nessa.

“Convedhys veu dhybm dell en vy botellys mar certan avell pyckel hernen wydn, ha nyns esa ma’s udn scappyans. Res o dhybm merwel. Ow helhysy mars esens ow cresy y feuv vy marow, anjy a vydna codha arta in cùsk.”

“Fatell wrusso’why spêda a’n dra?”

“Me a lavaras dhe’n den usy chambrour dhybm dell en vy gyllys clâv lowr, ha me a wrug lywa ow bejeth rag mâkya enewores. Nyns o hedna cales màn, rag my dhe vos tùllwyscor sley. Ena me a gemeras corf marow – yma body marow dhe gafos in Loundres pùb eur oll mar corowgh le may ma dhe fanja. Me a’n dros tre in cofyr wàr garyach peder ros, hag othem a weres wàr an stairys dhe’m rom in bàn. Dell wodhyer, res o dhybm grahella nebes dùstuny rag whythrans sodhogyl a’m ancow. My êth dhe’m gwely ha govyn orth ow chambrour kemysky draght cùsca dhybm, ena erhy dhodho voydya in kerdh. Whensys o va dhe dhry medhek, saw th’esen vy ow cùssya ha leverel na vydnen vy godha’ den fysek vëth. Pàn en vy genef ow honen oll, me a dhalathas conterfeytya wàr an corf-na. Y vusur o kehaval ha’m brâster vy, hag ev merwys re y syker, dell veu breus dhybm, ytho me a settyas neb gwyrosow obma hag ena yn parys. An challa o an gwanboynt i’n hevelepter, ytho me a wrug y dhystrôwy gans revolver. Dre lycklod, y fydn nebonen afydhya vorow fatell glôwas ev son a dedn, saw nyns eus kentrevak vëth wàr ow leur vy, ha me a rekna dell dela y lavasos. Ytho me a worras an corf i’m gwely, gwyskys i’m pyjamas vy, ha’m revolver a’y wroweth wàr dhyllas an gwely ha deray mynsek adhedro. Ena me a wyscas ow honen in sewt a veu sensys rybo’ dhe bùb othem. Ny vydnen vy bedha dyvarva, rag own may hallen vy gasa olow, ha dres hedna, dybrow glân o tria mos wàr an strêtys. Yth esewgh why i’m prederow oll an jëdh, ha ny yllyn ma’s gelwel orthowgh. Th’esen owth aspia mes a’m fenester erna welys why dhe dhos tre, ena me a slynkyas an stairys wàr nans rag omvetya genowgh ... Otta, sera, why a wor lebmyn a’n negys kebmys dell worama vy.”

Esedhys o va whath, ha’y dhewlagas ow plynchya kepar ha pàn ve cowan, ha’y nervow in treneyj, mès cowl-dhetermys bytegyns. Surhës en vy yn tâ solabrës y vos ow leverel an gwir. Whedhel o va moyha gwyls, saw my re glôwas lies whedhel ascorn pedn leugh hag anjy dysqwedhys a’y wosa dhe vos gwiryon, ha’m ûsadow yw jùjya an den kyns an story. Mara mydna ev establyshya y honen i’m ranjy, ena trehy an gùdhùk dhybm, y whrussa derivas nampyth clorra.

“Roy gàs alwheth,” yn medha’, “my â ha gweles an corf marow. Gwrewgh ascusya ow rach, saw res yw tabm prevy an gwrioneth mar callaf.”

Ev a shakyas y bedn yn trist. “Gàs govynadow yw dell dhargenys, saw ny’m beus. Yma va wàr ow chain ha hedna wàr an voos omwysca. Res o gasa an alwheth wàr ow lergh, rag na yllyn alowa chêson a dhrogdybyans. An dus jentyl usy orth ow helghya, th’yns y cytysans skentyl lowr. Res yw dhywgh perthy fydhyans ino’vy haneth, hag avorow y fëdh dùstuny a’n corf marow-na, yn tâ teg.”

Th’esen vy ow predery tecken pò dew. “Unverhës. Me a vydn trestya dhywgh haneth. Me a wra gàs gorra in dadn alwheth i'n stevel-ma, ha’y alwheth genama vy. Marnas udn ger, a Vêster Scudder. Gwirleveryas o’why, dell gresa’, mès mar nyns owgh yn tefry, res yw gwarnya dhywgh y bosaf handlor codnek a wodn.”

“Sur,” yn medh, ha sevel sodyn ha freth in bàn. “Godhvos gàs hanow, nyns ov enorys anodho, sera, saw gesowgh vy dhe leverel agas bos den gwydn. Ha gwrewgh lendya alsen dhybm, dre blegadow.”

Me a’n hùmbroncas ajy dhe’m chambour ha gasa dhe wary frank. Wosa hanter-our y teuth fygùr in mes esen vy owth aswon scant. Nyns o tra vëth heb chaunj saw y lagasow yn unsel, sherp ha nownek. Dyvarvys o ev glân, y vlew o rydnys i’ga cres, ha trehys veu y abransow. Gans hedna, y’n jeva stauns a dhyscans breselek, exampyl perfeth o va, bys in arlyw gell y fâss, a neb soudor Bretednek a renk, wosa termyn hir a dûta Eyndek. Th’esa unweder ganso kefrës, neb a worra ev dh’y lagas, ha pùb leveryans Amerycan o gyllys dhywar y gows.

“Re’m pât! Mêster Scudder –” me a stlavas in udn hockya.

“Nyns ov vy Mêster Scudder,” ev a wrug êwna; “Capten Theophilus Digby, a’n dewgansves Gùrcas, dewhelys dhe’n wlas tre in y dermyn frank. Gwaitys yw dell vedno’why remembra, sera.”

Me a wrug darbary gwely dhodho i’m rom megy ha mos dhe’m groweth vy, moy lowen ès dell veuma nans o mis leun. Traweythyow i’n bencyta-ma nakevys gans Duw, y feu neb wharvos byttele.

Me a dhyfunas ternos ha clôwes ow gwas, Paddock, fatell esa va ow qwil noys an jowl orth daras an rom megy. Paddock o pollat may whruga’ torn dâ dhodho alês wàr an Selakwy, hag ev arvedhys genef kettel dheuth vy dhe Englond. Th’esa kebmys helavarder ganso, ogas lowr, dell eus gans dowrvargh, ha nyns o va chambrour meur y dalent, mès y hyllyn trestya dh’y lelder, heb mar na martesen.

“Sens dha hùbbadùllya, Paddock,” yn medhaf. “Yma cothman dhybm, Capten – Capten” (kellys veu cov a’y hanow) “ow campya i’n rom-na. Gwra parusy haunsel dhe dhew dhen, ena deus ha my ow styrya.”

Me a dherivas dhe Paddock whedhel brav, an cothman fatell o onen meur y vry, ha’y nervow in studh idhyl wosa gorlavuryans, ow tervyn powes ha cosoleth heb ambos. Res porres o na wothfa nagonen y vos obma, poken y fedha omsettys gans messajys dhyworth an Sodhva Eyndek ha’n Pedn-venyster ha’y sawyans dyswrës. Y coodh alowa, th’esa Scudder ow qwary y bart yn frentyn pàn dheuth ev dhe’n haunsel. Ev a vera stark orth Paddock der y unweder, kepar ha sodhak Bretednek poran, govyn ow tùchya Bresel an Boers, ha tôwlel dhybm cals a story adro dhe vâtys fyscsyonek. Ny wodhya Paddock leverel ‘sera’ dhybmo, mès yth esa ow qwil ‘sera sera’ orth Scudder kepar ha pàn ve y vêwnans i’n vantol.

Me a’n gasas dhe gowethya gans an paper nowodhow ha box a cygarow, ha my ow mos dhe’n Cyta bys i’n eur ly. Pàn dheutha’ tre, th’esa tremyn brâs ha poos wàr dhen an iskydnor.

“Hager-wharvos obma hedhyw vyttyn, sera. Anedhyas in Nyver 15 re wrug omladha y honen gans godn. Anjy re’n dug dhe’n marowjy namnygen. Ma’n creslu ena vàn lebmyn.”

Me a ascendyas dhe Nyver 15, ha cafos copel a greswesyon hag arolegyth dhe vos bysy i’ga whythrans. Me a wrug nebes qwestyonow gocky, hag anjy a’m pôtyas mes yn scon. Ena me a gafas an den a veu chambrour kyns dhe Scudder, ha’y bùmpya, saw apert o nag esa gorgîs vëth ganso. Onen ha kynvan in y lev o va, ha’y fâss kepar ha corflan, hag êsy lowr y gonfortya dre hanter-cùrun.

My êth dhe whythrans an cùrunor i’n nessa dëdh. Cowethyas in neb chy dyllo a ros dùstuny dell wrug an den tremenys dry dhodho kynygow glus predn, hag ev o, dh’y vreus, mainor dhe gowethas Amerycan. Seyth an cùrunor a jùjyas an câss dell o va omladhans ha’n brës mes a’y rewl, ha’n nebes taclow personek a veu dascorys dhe’n Consùl Amerycan rag gà dyghtya. Me a dherivas oll an mater dhe Scudder, ha meur y les ino. Ev a lavaras ass o va hirethek a vos i’n whythrans-na, rag ev dhe dyby fatell via mar spicek dell ve redya artykyl a’th ancow dha honen.

I’n kensa dew dhëdh mayth esa ev tregys genef i’n rom dhelergh-na, th’o va pòr gosel. Ev a redya ha megy nebes, ha gwil crug a screfa in lyvryk cov, ha pùb gordhuwher y fedhen ny ow qwary gwëdhpoll, hag ev orth ow stewadny vy. Dell gresa’, th’esa va ow cherya y nervow bys in yêhes arta, rag ev a bassyas termyn vexus lowr. Saw i’n tressa dëdh me a’n gwelas dell esa ow mos dybowes. Ev a stagas rol dhe’n fos a’n dedhyow bys i’n 15ves mis Efen, ha’ga thyckya an eyl wosa y gela gans pluven blobm rudh, ha keworra covnôtyans berdhorn ryb pùbonen. Y fedhen vy ow tos ha’y gafos codhys in hunros morethek, ha’y lagasow lybm omdednys, ha wosa pùb pryjweyth a’n ombrederyans yth o tuedhys pòr dhyglon.

Ena me a verkyas dell esa ev ow mos wàr bigow dreyn unweyth arta. Y fedha ow coslowes orth sonyow bian, hag ow covyn prèst mars o Paddock den dhe drestya dhodho. Bohes weyth yth o pòr growsek, hag ev a wrug dyharas. Nyns ov vy whensys dh’y vlâmya. Me a vydna alowa dhodho moyha gyllyn, rag y oberen dhe vos onen vehus.

Sawder y grohen y honen, nyns o hedna y drobel, mès spêda y dowlen dell veu hy tôwlys. An denyk-na o colonecter pur dredho, heb spot medhel vëth. Udn nos y feu va pòr solempna.

“Now, Hannay,” yn medh, “dhe’m breus, y coodh dhybm ry downha ùnderstondyng a’n aventur-ma. Cas vëdh genef departya heb gasa ken onen wàr ow lergh rag batalyas.” Hag ev a wrug derivas manylyon a’n pëth na glôwys vy ma’s dyscler kyns.

Ny wrugaf y attendya yn tywysyk. In gwrioneth, yth o y anethow y honen a voy les dhybm agès y wlasegeth. I’m reknans vy, Carolydes ha’y writh nyns o bern vëth genef, ha my whensys dhe jarjya hedna oll dhodho ev. Ytho radn vrâs a vyns a dherivas, hy êth slyppys mes a’m cov yn tien. Kebmys dell esof ow remembra, ev a lavaras pòr gler na dhalethy an jùparty erna ve Carolydes devedhys in Loundres, ha’n peryl ow sordya mes a’n very gwartha, le na vedha skeus vëth a dhrogdybyans. Ev a wrug mencyon a venyn – Julia Czechenyi – esa maglys neb maner i’n peryl. Y fedha hy an edhen dynya, dell veu convedhys dhybm, rag kemeres Carolydes mes a with y wethysy. Th’esa va ow côwsel a neb Men Du inwedh hag a dhen stlav wàr y davas, hag ev a dhescrefas nebonen pòr gewar na ylly campolla heb scruth – den coth, mès yonk y lev, a wodhya gwil cûgh dh’y lagasow kepar ha falhun.

Th’esa ow côwsel a’y vernans yn fenowgh kefrës. Mortal porposys o va dhe wainya in y ober bys i’n dyweth, mès heb gwil fors vëth a’y vêwnans ev.

“Dell dyba’vy, th’yw pecar ha codha in cùsk pàn vosta sqwith oll, ha dyfuna ha cafos dëdh a hâv ha sawor gora ow tos orth an fenester ajy. Dhe Dhuw y whrug vy grassa lies myttyn a’n par-na pàn esen vy in Pow an Glaswels pell, ha grassa Dhodho me a vydn, dell waita’, pàn wrellen vy dyfuna a’n tu aral dhe’n Jordan.”

I’n nessa dëdh yth o va meur moy hudhyk, hag th’esa ow redya bewgraf Stonewall Jackson dres ourys. My êth ha kynyewel gans injynor bal mayth o res dhybm y weles rag negys, ha dewheles hanter wosa deg aderdro hag abrës dh’agan gwëdhpoll kyns mos dhe’m gwely.

Th’esa cygar i’m min, dell eus cov genef, pàn wrugaf egery daras an rom megy. Nyns esa bollen vëth ow colowy, ha my ow cafos hedna coynt. O Scudder gyllys dh’y wely solabrës?

Me a wrug sqwychella crack, saw nyns esa den vëth i’n rom. Ena me a aspias nampyth i’n gornel bell, ha gasa an cygar dhe godha, ha whës ow tardha dhybm in ewn euth.

Ow ôstyas vy, th’esa a’y wroweth omlêsys wàr geyn. Th’esa collel hir der y golon hag ev beryes stag i’n leur.


CHAPTRA 2

AN LETHOR OW TALLATH DH’Y VIAJYS

Me a sedhas wàr jair brehek, ha whans brâs dhybm a wheja. Pymp mynysen y turya, ha fyt a scruth ow sewya. An fâss truan wàr an leur, gwydn, stag y lagasow, th’o moy ès dell wodhyen vy perthy, ha me a gemeras lien moos ha’y gudha. Ena my êth in udn drebuchya dhe’n amary, cafos an dowr tobm ha lenky lower ganowas. Me a welas, kyns, tus a veu marow sodyn; gwir, re anodhans a ledhys mavy in Bresel Matabele; saw dyffrans o an gwrians afleythys-ma in dadn do. Bytegyns, gans caletter me a wrug dascùntell ow honen. Me a veras orth ow euryor, ha gweles bos hanter wosa deg.

Desempys y teuth tybyans dhybm, ha me a whythras an ranjy dour. Nyns esa den vëth dhe gafos, nag ol vëth a dhen, saw me a worras keas ha predn wàr oll an fenestry ha settya an chain dhe’n daras.

Lebmyn th’en vy devedhys tabm ha tabm dhe’m rewl, ha gallos predery arta. Cowl-dhesmygy an dra, me a’n gwrug dres udn our, heb hast, rag termyn frank dhe vos dhe’m ombrederyans bys whegh eur, ogas lowr, mar ny wrêns an voldroryon dewheles.

Th’esen vy in check pooth – hèn o lowr apert. Gyllys o pùb dowtyans oll a Scudder, y whedhel ha’y wiryoneth. Yth esa prov dyblans a’y wroweth in dadn an lien moos. An dus hag a wodhya ev dhe wodhvos myns a wodhya, anjy a’n cafas, hag ûsya an gwelha fordh rag diogelya y daw. Eâ; saw th’esa i’m rômys dres peswar dëdh, ha res yw y eskerens dhe gonvedhes dell wrug ev kyfy dhybm. Ytho y fedhen vy an nessa tremenor. Haneth whath, pyw a wor? pò avorow, pò trenja, mès yth esa dewetha sentens warna’, certan.

Ena me a dybys ken lycklod desempys. Mars ellen vy lebmyn ha gelwel an creslu, pò mos dhe’m gwely ha gasa Paddock myttyn dhe gafos an corf marow ha dh’aga gelwel? Pana whedhel a vydnen vy derivas a Scudder? Dhe Paddock me a lavaras gow in y gever, hag oll an dra fèst skeusus. Mar teffen vy ha gwirleverel pùptra a dherivas ev dhybm, ny vensa an creslu ma’s wherthyn orthy’. Mil worth onen o an chauns my dhe vos cùhudhys a’n moldrans, ha crev lowr o an dùstuny kerhynek rag ow cregy. Aswonys en vy dhe vohes pobel in Englond, ny’m bo mâta ogas a ylly bos test a’m natur. Hedna, par hap, o dhe’n eskerens kel-na gà meder. Conyng lowr êns y rag tra pynag a ve, ha pryson in Pow an Sowson o udn vaner bos ryddys ahana’ bys dres an 15ves mis Efen, mar dhâ avell collel i’m devron.

Dres hedna, mar teffen vy ha derivas oll an mater, hag anjy ow cresy dhybm dre verkyl, y fien vy ow qwary gà gam gà honen. Carolydes a vydna gortos in chy, an very pëth o gà whans. Neb rêson, gweles Scudder ha’y fâss marow a’m gasas cryjyk lel a’y dowlen, leskys ow holon. Gyllys o va, saw ev a wrug kyfy dhybm, ha my constrînys lowr dhe bêsya y whel.

Y fedhys ow sensy hobma tra wharthus martesen in den mayth o y vêwnans in kebmys peryl, saw indella th’esen vy ow tyby. Pollat kemyn y gynda oma, heb bos moy colodnek ès re erel, mès cas yw genef gweles dremas ledhys, ha Scudder – ny vedha an gollel hir-na y worfen, mar kyllyn vy gwary in y le.

Th’esen vy ow tesmygy hebma oll dres ourys dew, nena ervirys veuv vy. Res o dhybm vansya neb fordh, ha gortos vansys bys pedn secùnd seythen mis Efen. Ena res vedha cafos maner omdava gans pobel an Governans ha derivas myns a dherivas Scudder dhybmo. A mydna, re Dhuw, unweyth derivas moy! A mednen vy dhe voy, attendya an bohes pëth a dherivas defry!

Ny wodhyen vy tra vëth ma’s fethow pòr ajwiak. Brâs o an peryl, ha my ow tos der an perylyow erel yn salow kyn fe, na vydnens y cresy dhybm wàr an dyweth. Res o kemeres chauns a hedna, ha govenek genef a nebes happyans rag afydhya ow whedhel in gwel an Governans.

An kensa oberen o durya der an nessa teyr seythen. An jëdh-ma o an 24a mis Mê, ytho ugans dëdh a gudhans kyns lavasos côwsel orth an auctorytys. Dhe’m reknans, y fedha dew barcel a dus orth ow whelas – eskerens Scudder, rag trehy hanvos dhybm, ha’n creslu, a vydna cafos an den a wrug moldra Scudder. Helgh penscaf vedha, ha’y wetyas o confort brâs, coynt teg. Lows en vy mar bell, wolcùm mayth o pùb gweythres nowyth. Hadre ve res esedha yn tygoweth gans an corf marow-na ha gwil tendans dhe Fortyn, nyns en vy gwell ès kenak sqwattyes; maras esa codna ha sawder ow scodhya wàr skians, ha’m skentylsys ow honen i’n prov, parys en vy dhe vos lowen anedhy.

An nessa preder a dheuth dhybm: esa gans Scudder neb scrifow rag ry gwell gedyans i’n mater? Me a dednas an lien moos wàr dhelergh ha sarchya in y bockettys, rag nag esa dhybm plynchyans na felha a’n corf. An fâss o marthys cosel gans den a veu gweskys wàr nûk dhe’n dor. Nyns esa tra vëth i’n ascra, tra vëth ma’s nebes bathow munys ha sensor cygar in pocket an grispows. I’n lavrak yth esa kellylyk vian ha nebes bathow arhans, hag in pocket tenewen y jerkyn th’esa câss cygarow coth a grohen grocodyl. Nyns esa ol vëth a’n lyvryn du bian may whrugaf y weles ow covnôtya ino. Hedna a gemeras y voldror, heb dhowt.

Saw pàn wruga’ meras dhywar ow gweyth in bàn, me a aspias fatell veu tregys tedna egerys i’n bord screfa. Ny via Scudder whensys màn dh’aga gasa i’n studh-na, rag ev dhe vos an moyha kempen inter sojetys an ancow. Res yw nebonen dhe whelas neppyth – an lyvryn martesen.

My êth oll adro dhe’n ranjy ha cafos pùptra dhe vos pyllys – lyvrow a’n tu aberveth, tregys tedna, amarys, boxys, ha pockettys pùb gwysk i’m dyllasva kefrës, ha’n bord lestry i’n kynyowva. Heb ol a’n lyvryn. Pùb lycklod, an envy a’n cafas, saw ny wrussons y cafos an dra orth corf Scudder y honen.

Ena me a gemeras lyver mappys in mes ha whythra orth mappa brâs a’n Enesow Bretednek. Th’esa tybyans dhybm a scappya dhe neb qwartron gwyls, may whre les dhybm ow creft an glasweltir, rag my dhe vos logosen vrâs ha maglen i’m kerhyn in tre. Dell dybys, y fedha Scotlond an gwelha dôwys, rag ow herens avy, th’êns y Albanas, ha my abyl dhe vos degemerys avell Alban kemyn in pùb plâss. Ow hensa tybyans o omwil vysytyor Alman, rag ow thas a’n jeva cowethysy Alman, hag yth esen vy ow côwsel Almaynek pòr dhâ dhia’m megyans, heb gwil mencyon a’m teyr bledhen a whelas mûn cober in Damaralond an Almanas. Saw me a gonsydras dell vedha le hewel mar pedhen vy Scot, ha le alînys dhe vyns a wodhya an creslu, par hap, a’m dedhyow a veu. Me a wrug determya Gallowey dhe vos an gwelha covva. Tyller gwyls o va, ha’n nessa dhe’n or, kebmys dell yllyn vy rekna, hag in syght an mappa nyns o tew y boblans.

Sarchyans in Bradshaw a dhysqwedhy train dhe voydya orth Sen Pancras dhe 7:10, rag ow londya vy androwweyth in kenyver gorsaf in Gallowey. Hèn o dâ lowr, saw moy a bris  o an qwestyon, fatell dhov vy dhe Sen Pancras? rag certan y fedha cothmans Scudder owth aspia wàr an strêtys. Th’esen vy in penpleth pols dâ; ena me a’m beu awen, mayth êth avy dhe’m gwely ha cùsca dew our troblys warnedhy.

Me a dhyfunas orth peswar eur hag egery keas fenester an chambour. Th’esa golow gwadn devedhyans a vyttyn a hynon hâv ow lenwel an ebron, ha’n golvanas ow tallath aga hân. Ow tyflasa th’esen vy yn tien, hag owth omsensy fol nakevys gans Duw. Ow thuedhyans o gasa oll inter keun ha breyny, ha trestya dhe’n creslu Bretednek regardya an câss yn resonus. Saw pàn esen vy ow tasqweles an savla, ny gefys vy argùment vëth warbydn ow ervirans newher, ytho, cabm ow min, me a dhetermyas pêsya i’m devîs. Nyns en vy ownek anodho, mès heb whans vëth a whelas trobel, cler mars yw ow mênyng.

Me a wrug turya ha cafos sewt brethyn ha meur-ûsys, botas crev ha kentrow ina, ha cris gwlanen, fast y vond codna. I’m pockettys me a stoffyas cappa gonesyas, nebes lienyow dorn, ha scubylen dens. Me a dednas cals dâ a goynach owr mes a’n arhanty nans o dew dhëdh, rag dowt y fedha othem dhe Scudder a vona, ha me a gemeras hanter-cans pens a’n arhas-ma, in sovrans, in grugys a brenys in Rôdesya. Hedna oll o dhybm gorholeth lowr. Ena me a wrug troncas, ha trehy dhybm an minvlew, o hir ha cribellek, bys in pyllen got ha sowlek.

Lebmyn y sewyas an nessa stap. Y fedha Paddock ow tos 7:30 abrës hag entra gans alwheth clycket. Saw ugans mynysen dhe seyth eur, dell wodhyen vy, experyans wherow, y fedha an lethor ow tos gans clatter brâs a gadnys, ha gasa shara dhybm orth ow daras. Me a welas an lethor-na traweythyow kyns pàn en vy mes a’n chy hag in tro avarr wàr geyn margh. Den yonk o va a’n keth hirder ha my, gwanbeskys y vinvlew, ha côta gwydn in y gerhyn. Warnodho th’esen vy ow qwystla oll ow chauncys.

My êth ajy dhe’n rom megy, o tewl, ha dewyn golow an myttyn ow tallath slynkya dre geas an fenester. I’n rom-na me a gemeras haunsel: dowr Alban ha sôda, ha nebes byskyttys mes a’n amary. Nans o whegh eur aderdro. Me a worras pib i’m pocket ha lenwel pors mes a’n seth backa wàr an bord ryb an olas.

Pàn esen vy ow pockya aberth i’n backa ow besias a davas nampyth cales, ha me a dednas lyvryn du bian Scudder in mes ...

Hèn o arweth dhâ, dhe’m breus. Me a dherevys an lien dhywar an corf ha kemeres marth a’n cres ha’n dynyta i’n bejeth marow. “Farwèl, a was,” yn medha’; “me a vydn gwil oll ow ehen abarth dhys. Gwra benega ow whel, pypynag mayth esta.”

Ena me a darya i’n hel ha gortos an lethor. Hèn o an radn lacka oll i’n negys, rag namnag o vy tegys orth yêwnadow a scappya mes a jy. Y teuth an eur dhe hanter wosa whegh; dewgans wosa whegh; saw whath ny wrug ev dysqwedhes. An fol a dhôwysas an jëdh-ma, mesk oll an jornys, rag bos holergh.

Udn vynysen wosa an qwartron-our dhe seyth, me a glôwas an clattrans a’n cadnys wàr ves. Me a egoras an daras arâg, awot an den, hag ev ow tyberth ow hadnys vy dhyworth tysk esa va ow ton, hag ow whybana der y dhens. Ev a blynchyas nebes pàn y’m gwelas.

“Dewgh obma ajy rag tecken,” yn medha’. “Whans a’m beus a verr lavarow genowgh.” Ha me a’n hùmbroncas i’n gynyowva.

“Den sport o’why, dell dyba’,” me a lavaras, “ha whensys ov vy dhe gafos servys orthowgh. Gwrewgh lendya dhybm gàs cappa ha’gas côta, deg mynysen, hag otta sovran dhe why.”

  Brâs-egerys veu y lagasow pàn welas an owr, hag ev ow kenwerthyn yn ledan. “Pandr’ew’n gam?” ev a wovydnas.

“Prat a wystel,” yn medha’. “Ny’m beus termyn dh’y styrya, mès rag gwainya th’yw res dhybm bos lethor dres an nessa deg mynysen. Oll agas ober yw gortos obma erna dheffen vy arta. Tùch holergh vedho’why, saw ny vëdh grevons gans nagonen, ha’n pens-na, te a’n pew.”

“Dalowr!” yn medh, heudh y jer. “Nynj oma den dhe vyshevya spot a sport. Ot an darbar, meyster.”

Strik me a wyscas y hot glas plat ha’y gôta gwydn, kemeres an cadnys, degea ow daras sqwat, ha mos an stairys wàr nans, in udn whybana. An porthor wàr woles a wrug gorhebmyn sensy ow min, pëth a gonfyrmyas ow tùllwysk dhe servya.

Argraf uskys, nyns esa nagonen wàr an strêt. Ena me a aspias creswas cans lath y bellder, ha crowdror ow traylya y dreys a’n barth aral. Neb iny a’m gwrug dhe dhrehevel ow golok wàr an chy adâl, hag otta fâss orth fenester i’n kensa leur. Pàn dheuth an crowdror ha’m passya, ev a veras in bàn, ha neb sin a veu keschaunjys dell hevelly.

Me a wrug tremena dres an strêt, ha whybana gay ha mâkya kerdh an lethor, jolyf y lescans. Ena me a entras dhe’n kensa strêt adenewen, ha trailya aglêdh wàr amal splat a dir gwag. Nyns esa den vëth wàr an strêt bian-na, ytho gyllys veu an cadnys dhe godha heb let dres an ke predn, ha me a dôwlys an cappa ha’n côta wàr aga lergh. Me a wyscas ow happa gonesyas ha lytherwas ow tos dystowgh adro dhe’n gornel. Me a worhemydnas myttyn dâ, hag ev ow cortheby heb skeus. I’n very prës-na clock in eglos an kentrevogeth a wrug gweskel seyth eur.

Nyns esa tecken vëth moy ès dell resa. Kettel dheutha’ dhe Fordh Euston, me a bonyas crackya codna. Th’esa an clock in Gorsaf Euston ow showya pymp mynysen wosa seyth. In Sen Pancras ny’m beus termyn lowr dhe brena tôkyn, heb mencyon a’n feth na wrug vy ervira pedn ow hens na whath. Degor a dhysqwedhas an cay dhybm, ha pàn êth avy warnodho me a welas an train dhe vos in gwayans solabrës. Th’esa dew sodhak a’n gorsaf ow lettya an fordh, saw me a wrug diank ha crambla ajy dhe’n dewetha caryach.

Teyr mynysen a’y wosa, pàn esen ny ow mos in udn daredna dre geyfordhow an dre a’n north, gwethyas serrys a dheuth hag omweles genef. Ev a screfas tôkyn dhe Newton Stewart, hanow neb a dheuth dhe’m cov desempys, ha’m hùmbronk mes a’n radn adhevîs mayth en vy esedhys attês bys in radn megy a’n tressa class, mayth esa marner tregys, ha benyn dew ha flogh in hy devregh. Ev êth in kerdh, in udn groffolas, ha me a wrug deseha ow thâl ha campolla dhe’m cowetha, ha’m leveryans a’n moyha Albanek, cachya train dell o gweyth cales. Solabrës th’en vy entrys aberth i’m part.

“Ass o’n gwethyas-na dyveth!” yn medh an venyn, wherow hy lev. “Ma othom a davas an Alban rag keredhy glan. O’croffolas therava’n vaby vian-ma na’s teves tokyn, ha nynj ew hei pajer bloodh kenj Est war vledhen, hag ev o’lawl warbydn an den jentyl-ma ha’y drew.”

An marner a wrug assentya yn asper, ha me a dhalathas ow bêwnans nowyth in airgelgh a brotestyans erbydn an vestrysy. Me a dhros dhe’m cov fatla hevelly an bÿs mar sqwithus kyns, ha hodna heb bos ma’s udn seythen alebma.

 

CHAPTRA 3

ANETH AN TAVERNOR LIENAK

Termyn solempna o an viaj i’n jëdh-na dhe’n north. An ebron a vis Mê o cler teg, ha’n spern gwydn ow plejyowa wàr bùb ke, ha my ow covyn orthyf ow honen prag y whruga’ glena orth Loundres heb kemeres plesour a’n wlas nevek-ma, kynth en vy den a franchys whath. Ny yllyn vy bedha an caryach bosty, saw me a brenas canstel ly in Leeds ha’y radna gans an venyn dew. Prena paperyow an myttyn inwedh, ha nowodhow inans a vergh ow tallath i’n Derby hag egeryans a’n sêson crycket, ha nebes paragrafow fatell esa an savla i’n Balcanyow ow cosolhe ha’tell o sqwadron Bretednek danvenys dhe Kiel.

Pàn vowns y cowl-redyes, me a dhros lyvryn du bian Scudder in mes ha’y studhya. Leun lowr o va a screfa bysy, fygùrs dre vrâs, kynth esa hanow lytherednys obma hag ena. Rag exampyl, me a gafas an geryow ‘Hofgaard’, ‘Luneville’, hag ‘Avocâdo’ yn fenowgh, ha spessly an ger ‘Pavia’.

Now certan en vy nag esa Scudder bythqweth ow qwil tra vëth heb rêson, ha sur lowr en vy bos cîfer ûsys i’n lyvryn. Hòn yw desten a les dhybm pùb termyn, ha my ow qwil nebes gweyth cîfer pàn esen vy sodhak aspias in Bay Delagoa, in Bresel an Boers. Desedhys yw ow fedn dhe wëdhpoll, desmygow hag erel: assoylya cîfers, nyns en vy heb abylta anodho, dhe’m breus ow honen. Dell hevelly, an cîfer-ma o onen dhe’n sort nyverek, may ma settys a fygùrs ow cortheby dhe lytherednow an abecedary, saw y hyll pùb den skentyl cafos gedyans dre cîfer a’n par-na kyns pedn our pò dew, ha dowtys en vy dell via Scudder content dhe scodhya wàr neptra mar êsy. Ytho me a worras fog wàr an geryow lytherednys, rag y hyller gwil cîfer pòr dhâ mar y’th eus ger alwheth ha hedna ow ry ordyr dhe bùb lytheren.

Me a wrug assaya dres ourys, saw nyns esa assoylyans vëth i’n geryow. Ena me a godhas dhe gùsk ha dhyfuna in Dumfries scant adermyn rag rollya mes hag iskydna i’n train lent dhe Gallowey. Th’esa den wàr an cay nag o y syght dâ genef, saw ny drailyas golok vëth warnaf, heb marth hedna, ha my orth aspia ow semlant in gweder meras neb jyn awtomatek. Awos ow fâss howl-lywys, ow brethyn coth, ha’m stubm gwargren, yn tien th’en vy hevelep dhe onen a’n diogyon bryn esa owth iskydna, meur aga nùmber, in caryajys an tressa class.

Th’esen vy ow viajya gans pymp pò whegh aral in airgelgh a vacka garow ha pîbow pry. Devedhys êns y mes a varhas an seythen, ha’ga min leun a brîsyow. Me a glôwas derivadow a dhenethyans an ên in tir an Cairn ha’n Deuch ha deg dowr ken ha kevrînek. Moy ès hanter a’n dus a gemeras gà ly solabrës hag anjy saworys brâs a wyras Alban, saw ny wrussons y fors ahana’vy. Th’esen ny ow rollya lent wàr ros ha tros aberth in glydnow bian ha cosak, wosa hedna wàr won efan, lenter hy lohow, ha brynyow glas hag uhel a’n tu north.

Adro dhe bymp eur an caryach a veu gyllys gwag, ha my gesys genef ow honen, dell esa govenek dhybm pàn wrugaf omjùnya. Me a skydnyas i’n nessa gorsaf, tyller bian ha’y hanow scant attendyes, tyller desedhys in kenegen in hy very cres. Drës i’m cov arta y feu onen a’n gorsavow nakevys bian i’n Karroo. Th’esa mêster coth an gorsaf ow palas in y lowarth, hag ev ow kerdhes dhe’n train heb hast, ha’y bal wàr y scoodh, ha kemeres fardel in charj, ha dewheles dh’y batâtys. Flogh deg bloodh a recêvas ow thôkyn, ha my êth wàr fordh wydn in mes, ha hy ow qwandra dres an won worm.

Th’o gordhuwher spladn a hâv, ha pùb bre ow tysqwedhes mar gler avell amethyst trehys. Th’esa odour gwrëdh gwernek i’n air, coynt y deythy, mès fresk avell keynvor, hag ev owth effethya wàr ow spyrys yn astranj. Scaffa teg êth ow holon. Th’en vy kepar ha maw in tro kerdhes a dhegolyow gwaynten, adar den seytek bloodh warn ugans ha’n creslu orth ow whelas yn fen. Th’esa omglowans dhybm kepar ha pàn vedhen vy ow tallath dhe hirdravel brâs in myttyn yêyn wàr an glasweltir avàn. Mara cresyth dhybm, th’esen vy ow kerdhes hardh wàr an fordh-na, in udn whybana. Nyns esa towl caskergh i’m pedn, nyns esa ma’s porpos a gerdhes, rag ha rag i’n uhelbow benegys-ma, onest y sawor, ha pùb mildir ow qwella cher dhybm.

In dor plynsys ryb an fordh me a drohas lorgh a gollwëdh, ha dyberth orth an benfordh whare, dhe scochfordh ahës, ow sewya glydn gover tervus. Dell reknys, yth esen vy pell arag pùb helghyas whath, hag abyl dhe wil orth ow flesour i’n nos-na. Ny wruga’ sawory vytel vëth nans o lies our, ha pòr wag en vy pàn dheuth dhe growjy bugel desedhys in sorn ryb pystyl. Th’esa benyn a’y sav i’n daras, howl-lywys hy bejeth, ha hy orth ow recêva gans meth caradow tus an hal. Pàn wovydnys gwestva udn nos, hy a lavaras y bosa’vy wolcùm dhe’n “gwely i’n talyk”, ha scon y feu boos larj teg settys dhyragof: hàm hag oyow, scons, ha levryth wheg ha tew.

Dhe dewlwolow y teuth hy gour dhywar an brynyow tre, cowr tanow, esa ow mos an keth hës in udn pâss dell via try stap dhe bùb mortal ken. Ny wrussons y gwil qwestyon vëth orthy’, rag norter perfeth dhe vos gansa, dell eus dhe bùb tregor i’n gwylfos, saw me a wodhya convedhes y bosama gwycor a neb sort dh’aga breus, ha my orth hy afydhya kebmys dell yllyn. Th’esen vy ow côwsel meur adro dhe warthak, ha’m ost ow codhvos nebes anedha, ha tùchyng marhajow bro Gallowey me a dhescas lower, ha’y vailya aberth i’m cov dh’y ûsya i’n devedhek. Dhe dheg eur th’esen vy ow pendroppya wàr ow chair, ha’n “gwely i’n talyk” a gemeras den sqwith na wrug egery lagas kyns ès pymp eur dhe worra an wodref vian unweyth arta in whel.

Sconya talas a wrussons y, ha warbydn whegh eur, wosa haunsel, th’esen vy ow kerdhes stappys hir tro ha’n soth. Dewheles dhe lînen an hens horn yth esa tybyans genef, onen pò dew orsaf pelha ès may whruga’ skydnya de, hag omdrailya wàr dhelergh. Dell reknys, an sawa fordh o hobma, rag an creslu dhe soposya yn naturek y bosama prèst ow mos pelha dhyworth Loundres wor’tu ha neb porth a’n wèst. Dell hevelly dhybm, bleynyans dâ a’m bo i’n resekva whath, rag cably blam a’n drog-ober warna’vy, dell resnys, ny wrêns y ma’s wosa lies our, ha lower moy bys may whrellens aswon an pollat iskydnys wàr an train in Sen Pancras.

Th’esa an keth ebron a waynten, jolyf ha cler, hag omsensy behys a wovyjyon ny yllyn vy badna. In gwir, ow cher vy o gwell ès dell veu dre lies mis. Dres crib hir a’n hal me a gemeras fordh, ow mos ryb tenewen bre uhel a wrug an bugel henwel Cairnsmore of Fleet. Th’esa gelvynogas ha kernwhyl ow carma orth aga neythyans in pùb le, hag enygow pals wàr welsek an borva ryb pùb gover. Lowsethes oll an dewetha mîsyow, th’esa ow slyppya mes a’m eskern, ha my ow pacya kepar hag onen peswar bloodh. In by ond by me a dheuth dhe vothan i’n hal, inclynyes aberth in golans ryver bian, hag aspia mog train udn vildir abell.

An gorsaf pàn veu drehedhys, th’o va delvresek dhe’m porpos. An hal o omherdhys adedhro in bàn, ha nyns esa tyller gesys ma’s dhe’n hens unplek, y gilfordh danow, rom gortos, sodhva, penty mêster an gorsaf, ha garth munys a brysk grows ha Wella bian. Dell hevelly, nyns esa bownder vëth ow lêdya dhodho a neb le, ha rag cressya an dyfeythter th’esa todnow neb lydn meneth ow lyckya wàr dreth growyn hanter-mildir y bellder. Me a wortas i’n grug down erna wrugaf aspia, wàr an gorwel, mog train dhe’n ÿst. Ena my êth bys i’n dôkynva vunys ha prena tôkyn dhe Dumfries.

Nyns esa tregoryon i’n caryach ma’s bugel coth ha’y gy – mil brith y lagas ha my orth y vystrestya. Ow cùsca th’esa an den, ha ryptho wàr an pluvogow th’esa an Scotsman a’n myttyn-na. Me a’n sêsyas yn fen, rag certan en vy bos derivadow a les ino.

Th’esa dyw goloven adro dhe ‘Moldrans Portland Place’, dell o henwys. Ow gwas Paddock a wrug alarm hag inia dalhednans a’n lethor. An den truan! heb dhowt ev a dhendylas y sovran fordh gales; saw isel an pris dhybmo, rag ev dhe sensy an creslu bysy lowr der udn jorna ogatty. In mesk an nowodhow moyha degensow me a gafas radn nowyth a’n story. Gesys veu an lethor dhe wary, dell redys, ha’n drogwas gwir – tawesek o an creslu a’y hanow – a veu dienkys mes a Loundres, dell o cresys, wàr onen a’n hensy horn dhe’n north. Yth esa nôten got i’m kever vy avell perhen a’n ranjy. Dell dhesmygys, an creslu a geworras hedna rag assaya perswâdya dhybm, cledhek lowr, nag o vy drogdybys.

Nyns esa ken tra vëth i’n paper, tra vëth a’n wlasegeth tramor pò a Carolydes, pò a’n taclow a veu dhe Scudder a les. Me a’n gorras tre, ha merkya y boson ny ow nes’he dhe’n gorsaf may whruga’ skydnya de. Mêster an gorsaf, an den a’n bal patâtys, o kenerthys dhe nebes gweythres, awos an train dhe’n wèst dhe vos ow cortos rag agan gasa dhe dremena, ha mes anodho y feu tredden skydnys, neb esa ow qwil qwestyonow. Dell soposys, anjy o creslu an vro, kentrydnys gans Scotland Yard rag ow helerhy bys i’n gilfordh udn margh-ma. Esedhys pell dhelergh i’n skeus th’esen vy owth aspia dour ortans. Onen a’n jeva lyver, hag ev ow screfa covnôtyans. Den coth an patâtys o gyllys crowsek, dell hevelly, saw an flogh hag a gemeras ow thôkyn de, th’esa va ow côwsel freth y davas. An holl vagas a vera dres an hal mayth esa an fordh wydn departyes. Th’esen vy ow qwetyas y dhe whelas ow olow i’n tyller-na.

Pàn esen ny ow qwaya dhyworth an gorsaf, ow howeth vy a dhyfunas. Ev a stagas golok a stray warna’, pôtya y gy yn fylen, ha govyn pleth esen ny. Apert lowr, ev o pòr vedhow.

“Sew’ans a vos scon’or lycour,” ev a wrug compla, wherow y edrek.

Me a levas marth, fatell wruga’ cafos ev y honen dhe vos onen stordy adhevîs.

“Ea, scon’or crev oma a’n lycour,” yn medh, breselus y don. “Me a’n plyght’as dwetha Deg’l Martyn, ha ny rugam tava badna dowr Alban a’y woja. Ny rugam madn, Hogmanay kyn fe, ha my tempt’es yn froas.”

Ev a dherevys y dhewwewen wàr an eseth in bàn, ha pockya pedn dygempen ajy dhe’n pluvogow.

“Ha hebm ew ow reward,” yn medh in udn hanaja. “Pedn tobma es tan iffarnak, ha dewlagas ow meras kescar i’n Sabot.”

“Pëth a’n gwrug dhys?” me a wovydnas.

“Dewas hen’ys dowr Frynkek. Dref’n bos scon’or lycour, savam wor’dowr Alban, saw therom oth eva dowr Frynkek lebmyk lebmyk dre’n jedh, ha dout dhebm mar pedham sawys in pymthek nos.” Y lev êth in stlaveth trew dhe ves, ha cùsk a wrug settya y dhalhen boos ino unweyth arta.

Ow thowl vy o skydnya dhe orsaf nebes pelha i’n lînen, saw gwell chauns a ros an train dhybm desempys, rag ev dhe sevel stag wàr bedn tremen idn dres ryver tervus, coref gorm y golour. Me a veras in mes, ha merkya bos fenester pùb caryach degës, heb body denyl dhe weles i’n dirweth. Ytho me a egoras an daras, ha lebmel uskys aberth in magel a gollwëdh esa owth amala wàr an lînen.

Pòr dhâ, na ve an ky dyowlak dhe vellya. Ev a bredery dell esen vy ow voydya gans pythow y vêster, ha dallath hardha, ha settya y dhens i’m lavrak ogatty. Hebma a dhyfunas an bugel, esa a’y sav in daras an caryach, ow cresy dell wrug avy omladha ow honen. Me a slynkyas der an godhal, drehedhes amal an strem, ha kemeres cans lath a bellder dhywortans in dadn woskes an prysk. Ena me a veras mes a’m covva wàr dhelergh gans rach, ha gweles gwethyas an train ha lower tremenyas cùntellys adro dhe dharas egerys an caryach hag owth aspia glew i’m qwartron vy. Ny alsen vy departya in maner moy poblek mara mednen vy qwitya gans kernyas ha band brest.

I’n gwelha prës an bugel medhow a dednas attendyans an dus dhyworthyf. Ev ha’y gy, hag o jùnyes dh’y wast gans lovan, anjy a godhas sodyn sket mes a’n caryach, londya wàr aga fedn dhe’n leur, ha rollya an bank wàr nans, polta tro ha’n dowr. I’n rescous a sewyas, an ky a wrug brathy nebonen, rag my dhe glôwes son a gùssyans fers. Y a’m ancovas whare, ha pàn wruga’ lavasos meras wàr dhelergh wosa qwartron-mildir a scolkyans, dalethys o an train solabrës hag ev ow mos i’n droghva mes a wel.

Th’esen vy in hanter-kelgh ledan a hal, ha’n ryver gorm o gwrath dhodho, ha’n brynyow uhel ow formya y gompas adro a’n tu north. Nyns esa sin na son a vab den, tra vëth ma’s lagyans a’n dowr ha crians an kernwhyl heb hedhy. Bytegyns, ha coynt lowr, kensa prës yth esa brawagh an best helghyes warna’vy. Nyns esen vy ow predery a’n creslu, mès a’n dus erel, a wodhya fatell wodhyen vy tra gelys Scudder; a wodhya na yllens y godhevel dhybm bewa. Certan en vy dell vydnens y chacya gans dywysygneth ha hewolder dres ûsadow an laha Bretednek, ha my heb cafos mercy vëth pàn wrella gà gavel degea i’m kerhyn.

Me a veras wàr dhelergh, saw nyns esa tra vëth i’n dirweth. Yth esa an howl ow terlentry wàr olcan an hens ha wàr an veyn glëb i’n strem, ha nyns esa syght moy cosel dhe weles i’n bÿs. Byttele me a dhalathas ponya. Me a blattyas in goverygow an genegen ha ponya erna wruga’ drehedhes min an meneth hag omdhehesy in udn dhiena wàr grib pell a-ugh dowrow yonk an ryver gorm.

Mes a’m tyller a brow th’eso’vy ow whythra oll an hal alês, bys i’n hens horn, ha dresto i’n soth mayth esa gwelyow gwer ow kemeres le an grug. Dhybm yma lagasow a’n hôk, saw ny welys vy tra vëth in gwayans i’n holl bowdir. Ena me a veras dres an grib dhe’n ÿst ha gweles kynda nowyth a dirweth – valys bas ha glas ha tyleryow plynsys pals ha gwanlinednow a dhoust esa ow tysqwedhes penfordhow. Dewetha oll, me a veras aberveth i’n ebron las a vis Mê, hag ena me a welas an pëth a drailyas pols ow gwythy in stêvyans ...

Isel i’n soth yth esa airen udn askel owth ascendya. Mar sur en vy dell pàn ve deskys dhybm bos an airen-na orth ow sarchya, ha hy heb bos jyn longus dhe’n creslu. Udn our, pò dew, th’esen vy owth aspia orty mes a’m poll i’n grug. Hy a neyjas yn isel, an badnow ahës, ena in kelhow cul dres an valy may teuth avy dredho. Ena y chaunjyas hy forpos, dell hevelly, ha’n jyn owth ascendya uhelder brâs, hag ow neyja dhe’n soth dhe ves.

Dâ genef nyns o cabmen an aspians-ma i’n air, ha lacka ow brusyans a’n powdir a dhêwysys vy in harber. Covva wyw nyns o brynyow grugek màn mars esa ow eskerens i’n ebron, ha res o dhybm trouvya ken sort a sentry. Th’esen vy ow meras moy ow flesour wàr an pow glas dres an grib, rag my dhe gafos cosow ena, ha treven a veyn.

Adro dhe whegh eur gordhuwher me a dheuth mes a’n hal dhe rybyn gwydn a fordh, ow qwia golans cul neb gover a’n stras ahës. Hadre ven vy orth hy sewya, th’esa an gwelyow ow plegya dhe fydny, an glydn êth wàr wastattir, ha my ow tos whare dhe ajwy a neb ehen i’n meneth, mayth esa udn chy dygoweth ow pyffya y vog i’n tewlwolow. Th’esa an fordh ow swarvya dres pons, ha den yonk posys wàr an crenel.

Th’esa va ow megy pib hir a bry hag ow studhya an dowr dre spectaclys. In y dhorn cledh yth esa lyvryn hag udn bës ow qwetha plâss. Yn lent ev a wre declaimya –


                         “As when a Gryphon through the wilderness

                         With wingèd step, o’er hill and moory dale

                         Pursues the Arismaspian”

                        [Kepar ha pàn ella Gryfon dre’n gwylfos, askellek y stap, dres bryn ha nans an hal, ow chacya an Arymaspyan (Milton)]

Ev a drailyas in udn blynchya pàn sonas ow stap vy wàr an men alwheth, ha me a welas bejeth, maw y fysmens, plesont ha lywys der an howl.

“Gordhuwher dâ dhywgh,” ev a lavaras yn sàd. “Nosweyth brâv yw rag kerdhes.”

Th’esa odour a vog towargh hag a neb goleyth saworek ow tryftya i’n air mes a’n chy.

“Yw an tyller-na tavern?” me a wovydnas.

“Dh’agas servys,” yn medh cortes. “An tavernor ov vy, sera, hag yma govenek why dhe ôstya genen dres nos, rag – ha my ow leverel an gwir – ny veu coweth dhybm nans yw seythen.”

Me a dednas ow honen wàr an crenel in bàn ha lenwel ow fib. Th’esen vy ow trouvya kefrysyas martesen.

“Yonk o’why ha soodh tavernor dhywgh solabrës,” yn medha’.

“Ow thas a veu marow bledhen alebma ha kemydna an negys dhybm. Tregys ov vy ena gans ow dama wydn. Soodh dhyfreth dhe dhen yonk, heb bos ow galwans dôwysys.”

“Py galwans?”

Ev a rudhyas, heb wow. “Whensys oma dhe screfa lyvrow,” yn medh.

“Ha pana jauns a yll den gwetyas dhe well?” me a wrug cria. “Dàr, mar venowgh y tybyn vy ost tavern dell vedha rackor flour!”

“Indella ny vëdh i’n jëdh hedhyw,” ev a worthebys yn fen. “Indella par hap i’n dedhyow coth may fedha prierynas ha balladoryon ha tebel-ladron ha côchys post wàr an fordh. Ken th’yw lebmyn. Nyns eus nagonen ow tos obma, marnas kerry tan leun a venenes tew, hag anjy owth hedhy rag prës ly, ha pùscador pò dew i’n gwaynten, ha’n wobrenoryon sport godn mis Est. Nyns eus defnyth brâs dhe gemeres orth hedna. Whensys oma dhe weles bewecter, dhe viajya der an bÿs, ha dhe screfa kehaval ha Kipling, Conrad. Saw whath ny spêdys vy tra vëth, ma’s dyllo nebes gwersyow in Chamber’s Journal.”

Me a vera orth an tavern, owrek i’n howlsedhas a’y sav ha’n brynyow gell y gilva.

“My re wandras hës dâ dre’n bÿs, ha ny vydna’vy despîsya ancarjy a’n par-ma. A greso’why nag eus aneth dhe gafos ma’s i’n Drova pò mesk gwelhevyn in hevys rudh? Par hap why yw cowethys gans aneth i’n very prës-ma.”

“Dell usy Kipling ow leverel,” yn medh, glewa y wolok, hag ev a wrug devydnes neb gwers adro dhe romans ow try an naw eur pymthek.

[“Romance!” the season-tickets mourn, / “He never ran to catch His train, / But passed with coach and guard and horn – / and left the local – late again!” / Confound Romance! ... And all unseen / Romance brought up the nine-fifteen.” (Kipling)]

“Ot obma whedhel gwir dhywgh, ytho,” me a grias, “ha wosa mis y hyller gwil novel anodho.”

A’m eseth wàr an pons in tewlwolow medhel a vis Mê, th’esen vy ow racka whedhel spladn. Ha’n gwir o va in oll y linednow, kyn whruga’ chaunjya an manylyon. Me a bretendyas y bosama den bal brâs a Kimberley, troblys meur awos PAD [Prenas Adamans Dyfednys (Sowsnek: Illicit Diamond Buying ‘IDB’)] ha dyskevror a sherewys. Anjy a’m chacyas dres an keynvor, ha ladha ow nessa cothman, ha cafos lebmyn ow olow avy.

Me a wrug racka yn tâ, res yw alowa dhybm. Me a bortrayas fo dres an Calahary bys in Afryca Alman, an dedhyow a sehes ow crasa, an nosow paly blou rial. Me a dhescrefas omlath warbydn ow bêwnans i’n viaj tre, ha lymna an moldrans in Portland Place avell nampyth a’n hackra. “Ow whelas aneth th’eso’why,” me a grias; “wèl, why a’n jeves obma. Yma an dhewolow orth ow helghya vy, ha’n creslu orth gà helghya ynsy. Resekva yw, ha my determys dh’y gwainya.”

“Ren ow thas!” ev a whystras, in udn anella sherp aberveth, “Rider Haggard ha Conan Doyle glân yw an holl dra.”

“Why a’m crës, dhana,” yn medha’vy, meur ow ras.

“Heb mar na martesen,” hag ev a istydnas y leuv. “Me a grës pynag oll a vo dres kynda. Ny wrav vy mystrestya tra vëth ma’s normalyta.”

Pòr yonk o va, saw den a allen vy fydhya ino sur.

“Dell hevel, y a gollas an olow rag tro, saw res yw dhybm omgeles copel a dhedhyow. A yllowgh ry gwestva?”

Ev a’m cachyas vy er elyn in y frethter ha tedna wor’tu ha’n chy. “Why a yll keles mar gles obma dell vowgh in toll mûs. Me a wra gwil na vydna nagonen naneyl ow clattra ahanowgh. Ha why a vydn gasa moy defnyth dhybm a’gas anethow, martesen?”

Pàn entrys vy in portal an tavern, me a glôwas polsans a jyn tan i’n pellder. Otta va, ow hothman vy, sylhouet wàr dewlwolow an Wèst: an airen udn askel.

Ev a boyntyas chambour dhybm wor’tu delergh an chy, ha golok vrav dres an gwastattir mes anodho, hag ev a ros franchys a’y rom studhya, leun a dhyllansow iselbrîs a’y auctours moyha kerys, lies aga crug. Ny welys vy an dama wydn bythqweth, ytho desmygy y bos hy keth dh’y gwely. Y fedha benyn goth, Margit hy hanow, ow try pùb prës boos dhybm, ha’n tavernor ow qwil tendans warna’ pùb eur oll. Me a’n jeva whans a dermyn ragof ow honen, ytho me a settyas oberen dhodho. Th’esa jyn dewros ganso, ha ternos me a’n danvonas rag prena paper nowodhow an jorna, a vedha ow tos gans an post warbarth i’n androw. Me a wrug gorhebmyn lagasow opyn prèst, rag may halla va merkya pùb fygùr estrednek a ve va orth y weles, hag aspia glew orth kenyver carr hag airen. Esedhys veuv vy ena rag whythra orth lyvryn Scudder in ewn dhywysycter.

Hanter-dëdh ev a dheuth tre, ha don an Scotsman. Nyns esa tra vëth ino, marnas neb dùstuny addys gans Paddock ha’n lethor, ha menegyans unweyth arta, dell o screfys de, an moldror dhe vos gyllys dhe’n North. Saw yth esa artykyl hir, daspryntys mes a The Times, ow tùchya Carolydes ha’n plit i’n Balcanyow, kyn nag esa mencyon vëth a vysyt dhe Englond. Me a wrug ryddya ow honen a’n tavernor dres an dohajëdh, rag my dhe hedhes ogas flàm i’m sarchyans a’n cîfer.

Dell derivys solabrës, cîfer nyverek o va, ha dre gevreth arbrevy complek me a dhyskevras yn tâ lowr pandr’o an elvednow gwag ha’n elvednow poyntyans. Ancombrynsy brâs o an ger alwheth, ha pàn esen vy ow predery a’n geryow possybyl, neb mylyon pò moy, dyweres yth êth vy yn tien. Saw adro dhe deyr eur me a’n jeva awen sodyn.

An hanow Julia Czechenyi a wrug luhesy i’m cov. Scudder a lavaras hy dhe vos meur hy bry in negys Carolydes, hag y teuth dhybm i’m brës dell ylly bos prevys i’n cîfer.

Ha sowyn. Th’esa an pymp lytheren in “Julia” ow tysqwedhes savla an vogalednow. A, hòn o J, an degves lytheren i’n abecedary, ytho fygùryes X i’n cîfer. E, hòn o U = XXI, hag indella rag. Th’esa “Czechenyi” ow tysqwedhes an nyveren dhe bùb kesson a vry. Yn uskys me a screfas an rester-na wàr bîss paper ha dallath redya Scudder ha’y folednow.

Wosa hanter-our th’esen vy ow redya gwydn ow bejeth, ha’m besias ow qweskel wàr an voos avell wàr dabour.

Me a wrug tôwlel golok mes a’n fenester hag aspia carr touryas, brâs y vyns, ow tos tro ha’n tavern, an glydn in bàn. Ev a savas orth an daras, hag y teuth son a dus ow skydnya. Dell hevelly, th’esa dew anedha, dew wor, côta staunch i’ga herhyn ha cappa brethyn wàr gà fedn.

Wosa deg mynysen an tavernor a dheuth cosel i’n chambour, ha’y lagasow bryght aga frobmans.

“Ma dew bollat wàr woles, eus orth gàs whelas,” ev a whystras. “Mowns y i’n gynyowva, hag eva dowr Alban ha sôda. Y a wrug govynadow ahanowgh ha leverel bos govenek dhedhans a’gas metya obma. Ô! hag y a wrug gàs descrefa pòr dhâ, agas botas ha’gas cris kefrës. Me a worthebys why dhe vos obma newher ha gyllys wàr jyn dewros hedhyw vyttyn dhe ves, hag onen a’n bollatys a gùssyas avell palor dowrgleth.”

Me a gemeras aga semlant dhyworto. An eyl o gwas tanow, tewl y lagas ha bojek y abrans, th’esa y gela ow minwherthyn pùpprës hag ow côwsel stlav wàr y davas. Estren vëth o naneyl na’y gela. Ow hothman yonk, certuster a’n jeva a hedna.

Me a gemeras pîss paper ha screfa an geryow-ma i’n Almaynek kepar ha pàn vêns y radn a lyther –

                               ... Men Du. Scudder a’n dyskevras, saw pymthek nos whath ny ylly gwil tra vëth. Ha my dowtys lebmyn mar calla’vy obery neppyth a brow, spessly rag Carolydes dhe vos ansur a’y dhevîs. Saw mar mydn Mêster T cùssulya, oll ow ehen a wrama ...

Me a’n conterfeytyas teg lowr, ha’y semlant o neb folen lows a lyther pryva.

“Tanowgh hebma wàr nans ha leverel ev dhe vos trouvys i’m chambour, ha govyn orta dascor an folen dhybm mar y’m cafons y.”

Wosa try mynysen me a glôwas an carr dhe waya, ha meras kel in mes a’n groglen hag aspia an dhew fygùr. Th’o an eyl den moon, y gela den smoth; hèn o cowlsùm dhe’m ragwhythrans.

Y teuth an tavernor brâs y frobmans. “Gàs paper a’s dyfunas glew,” yn medh lowen leun. “An gwas tewl êth gwydn avell bedh in dadn ergh ha cùssya yn iffarnak, ha’n den corfak a’n jeva hager-dâl ha whyban wàr y vin. Y a dylys aga dewas gans hanter-sovran, heb gortos an mona munys.”

“Now hèm yw an pëth a wrewgh gwil,” yn medha’. “Kemerowgh gàs dewros ha mos dhe Newton Stewart dhe’n Pedn-gonstabyl. Rewgh descrevyans a’n dhew dhen, ha leverel y boso’why gà drogdyby dell esens y maglys neb maner i’n moldrans in Loundres. Why a wor desmygy rêsons. An dhew a vydn dewheles, sur certan. Ny dhowns y haneth, rag y dhe’m holya dewugans mildir wàr an fordh, mès avorow avarr. Gwrewgh gorhebmyn orth an creslu bos obma in kensa terry an jëdh.”

Ev a dhalathas dhe’n fordh kepar ha flogh clor, ha my ow conys nôtyansow Scudder whath. Pàn dheuth arta ny a wrug kynyewel warbarth, ha res o dhybm, in comen-ewnder, sùffra y vos ow pùmpya derivadow in mes ahana’. Me a whedhlas showr adro dhe helgh lions ha Bresel Matabele, ha my ow predery i’n kettermyn fatell o negysyow a’n par-na mater idhyl mara pe comparyes dhe’n pëth esa orth ow dydhana i’n eur-ma. Pàn êth ev dhe’n gwely yth en vy esedhys whath, dhe’n dyweth lyvryn Scudder. Ena th’esen vy ow megy bys may trehevys an howl, rag na yllyn vy cùsca.

Adro dhe eth eur me a wrug aspia devedhyans a dhew gonstabyl ha serjont gansa. Y a worras aga harr in chy côcha warlergh brednyans a’n ost, hag entra dhe’n tavern. Wosa ugans mynysen, mes a’m fenester, me a welas secùnd carr ow tos dres an gwastattir dhyworth an qwartron contrary. Ny dheuth ev dhe’n tavern, mès sevel dew cans lath alês, in goskes splat a goos. Me a verkyas fatell wrug an re esa ino lewyas wàr dhelergh kyns dyberth orto. Mynysen pò dew, ha me a glôwas aga stappys wàr an rabmen orth an fenester wàr ves.

Porposys en vy dhe omgudha i’m chambour, ha gortos pùb wharvedhyans. Dell hevelly dhybm, mar kyllyn vy settya an creslu ha’m helhysy moy peryllys an eyl gans y gela warbarth, y fedha nampyth dhe’m les ow sewya par hap. Saw lebmyn y teuth dhybm tybyans o gwell. Uskys lowr me a screfas nôten a râss dhe’m ost, egery an fenester, hag omdhroppya tawesek ajy dhe brysken grows. Heb bos aspies, me a dremenas dres an vanken, slynkya tenewen neb is-streth ahës, ha gwainya an benfordh a’n tu pell dhe’n splat a wëdh. Ot an carr, meur y dacluster in splander an myttyn, saw th’esa an doust warnodho ow testa viaj hir. Me a’n tanyas, lebmel dhe eseth an lewyor, ha mos ladrus wàr an gwastattir in mes.

Dystowgh ogatty, an fordh a godhas, may feu an tavern mes a’m gwel, saw th’esa an gwyns ow try son dhe’m clow a levow engrys.

 

AN PESWORA CHAPTRA

A VËDH KEWORRYS

DHE’N CHAPTRYS-MA

MIS WHEVREL 2020

 







Gerva rag An Nawnjek Stap Warn Ugans


Opposites


Opposites


Brȃs - Big

Bian - Small

Coth - Old

Yonk - Young

Hir - Long

Cot - short

Dȃ - Good

Drog - Bad

Tobm - Hot

Yeyn - Cold

Gorow - Masculine

Benow - Feminine

Yagh - Healthy

Clȃv - Sick

Uskys - Quick

Lent - Slow

Tus - Men

Benenes  - Women

Den - Man

Benyn - Woman

Sёgh - Dry

Glёb - Wet

Crev - Strong

Gwadn - Weak

Tew – Fat, Thick

Tanow - Thin

Saw - safe

Peryllys - Dangerous

Cales - Hard

Medhel - Soft

Cortes - Polite

Dyscortes - Rude

Maw - Boy

Mowes - Girl

Mebyon - Boys

Mowysy - Girls

Ogas - Near

Pell - far

Plos - Dirty

Glȃn - Clean

Rych - Rich

Bohosak - Poor

Uhel - High

Isel - Low

Gwag - Empty

Leun - Full

Poos - Heavy

Scav - Light

Fur - Wise

Gocky - Foolish

Wheg - Sweet

Wherow  - Bitter

Pedrak  - Square

Rȏnd - Round

Adȃl - Opposite

Ryb - Beside

Du - Black

Gwydn - White

Tewl - Dark

Spladn - Bright

Dov - Tame

Gwyls - Wild

Avȃn – Up   (position)

Awoles – Down (position)

Ȇwna - mend

Terry - Break

Bew - Alive

Marow - Dead

Disky - Undress

Gwysca - Dress

Cara - Love

Hȃtya - Hate

Kerdhes - Walk

Ponya - Run

Mos - Go

Dos - Come

Dallath - Start

Gorfedna - Finish

Mining Terms in Cornish


TIN AND COPPER MINING AT CARNKIE: SOME SUGGESTED CORNISH TERMS
GONYS MÛN IN CARN KY: PROFYANS A NEBES TERMOW KERNOWEK
Ian Jackson, Agan Tavas talk / areth Agan Tavas, November / mis Du 2017 (KS)


 adit n ôdyt m odytys
adventure n aventur m aventurs
adventurer n aventuryor m aventuryoryon
alluvial adj livlisek
bal maiden n moren f moronyon bal
beam engine n jyn m keber
black tin (peroxide) n sten m du
blowing house n chy m treven whetha
boiler n caudarn m caudarns
boiler house n chy m treven caudarn
branch (of lode) n scorren f scorednow
brogue n pawgenpawgednow
bruise v brewy
buck v bockya
buddle n bùdel m bùdellow
buddle v bùdellya
buddler n bùdellyor m bùdellyoryon
burn v lesky
burning house n chy m treven lesky
cage (of lift) n bagh f bahow
calcine v rôstya
calciner n rôstyor rôstyoryon
cassiterite n men m sten
casualty n den m brew pl: tus vrew
circular adj kelhek
cob v cobbya
copper n cober m
copper pyrites n mûn m melen
cost book n lyver m lyvrow costow
count house n chy m treven acowntya
cover n argharhow
craze v terry
crop n pedn m pednow
crush v sqwattya
crusher n sqwattyor m sqwattyoryon
deposit n godhas m godhojyon
development n dysplegyans m
dradge n dràj m
dress v dyghtya
dressing floor n leurleuryow dyghtya
dressing operation n oberyans m oberyansow dyghtya
drive (tunnel etc) v drîvya
engine n jynjynys
engine house n jynjyjynjiow
engineer n injynorinjynoryon
fathom n gourhesgourhesow
fine adj fin
flood v budhy
frame n fram m frâmys
furnace n fornysfornysyow
granite n men m growyn
grate n maglenmaglednow
griddle n gradellgradellow
griddle v gradellya
halvans n growyjyon pl
head n pedn pednow
high pressure steam n ethenwascas uhel
hoist v haulya
hutch n argharhow jyggya
iron pyrites n owr m an bobba
jag v jaggya
jig v jyggya
kibble n kybel kybellow
kieve n tonel tonellow
killas n kyllas col
launder n londerlondrys
lease n prislesprislesow
leat n canelcanellow
level n level m levelyow
lode n gothgwythy
lode mining n gonysbal
matrix n mabmek m
metal n olcan m
metamorphic adj dyfelebys
middle n cres m
mill n melyn f melynyow
mill v mala
mine n whelwhelyow
mine v palas
mine captain n captên captêns an bal
miner n dentus bal
mineral agent n mainormainoryon mûn
mineral lord n arlùtharlydhy mûn
mining n gonysmûn (generally or specifically copper); gonys sten (tin)
mining accident n droglam m droglabmow bal
mundic n owr m an bobba
ore n mûn m (in general or specifically copper); sten m (tin)
oven n forn f fornow
pack v packya
pick v cùntell
pickaxe n pyckpyckys
pitman n den m tus poll
prillsprylyon pl
production n ascoryans m
pump v pùmpya
purser n porsor m porsoryon
rag v raggya
riddle v rydra
rock drill n tardarterder carrek
rough adj garow
royalty n mûndalasmûndalasow
safety helmet n basnet basnettys sawder
scoriasoras col
set (of stamps) n setsettys
sett n pastelpastellow bal
shaft n shaftashaftys
share n kevrankevradnow
shift n torn tornys
shore up v settya peul dhe
shovel n rev f revow
sink a shaft phr polly shafta
skimpings n tanowyon pl
sledge (hammer) n slodyaslodyes
slime n slim m
slime pit n pollpollow slim
smalls n manylyon pl
smelt v tedha
smelter n tedhortedhoryon
smelting house n chy treven tedha
spall v skyrra
specific gravity n postercomparek
square adj pedrak
stamp v stampya
stamps n stampys pl
stannary n stenak stenegow
steam engine n jynjynys ethen
stope n stôpstôpys
stope v stôpya
stoper n stôpyorstôpyoryon
strip n lin f lînyow
sump n sùmpsùmpys
surgeon n chyrùrjyenchyrùrjyens
surveyor n arwhythrorarwhythroryon
tail n lost m lostow
tin n sten m (ore); stengwydn (metal)
tin bounds n tir sten
tin-stuff n stenstoff m
tinner n stenorstenoryon
tinstone n mensten
tramway n tràmtramyow
trauma n goly goliow
trepantrephinetrepanya
tribute n trubyt m
tributer n den m tus trubyt
trunk n tronktronkys
trunk v tronkya
tutwork n ranweyth m
tutworker n ranweythorranweythoryon
van n revrevow
van v revya
washing-plate n plâtplâtys golhy
waste n atal col
water wheel n ros rosow dowr
whim n whymwhyms
white tin n sten m gwydn
whits n gwydnyon pl
winding engine n whymwhyms
winze n gwynsgwynsys
wolfram n wolfram m
work (ore being dressed) n ober m
workings n balbalow
yellow ore n mûnmelen