Uses of “Bos”
The indicator in Cornish as to whether a sentence is a question or a statement when using short form “Bos” is the position of the verb, remember “Bos” is an auxiliary or helper verb and used to indicate who is being discussed and also the tense,
Bos short form present tense
If it comes before the subject/verb it is a question;
Os ta Lowen – Be you happy (Are you happy)
If it follows the subject/verb it is a statement;
Lowen ov vy – Happy I be (I am happy)
Remember when using question form if you are asking a question you may have to switch the person to answer, for example in English if you ask,” are you wet” (glёb) the answer would be “I am wet”. In the same way if you were asking about “you” plural the answer would be, “we are wet”
In Cornish this would be
Os ta glёb? – Be you wet?
Glёb ov vy – I be wet
Owgh why glёb? – Be you wet?
Glёb on ny – We be wet
If you wished to add “yes” or “no to your answer you use the question to say yes or no.
So in the examples above to add yes you would say;
Ov,glёb ov vy – Yes, wet I be (yes, I am wet)
On, glёb on ny – Yes, wet we be (Yes, we are wet)
If you wished to answer the question in the negative you use the question plus "Nag ..., Nyns ..."
“Nag ov, nyns ov vy ” is used, and this means;
Nag ov– no
Nyns ov vy – not I be
In this context these are always used together for example;
Nag ov, nyns ov vy glёb – No not I be wet (No, I am not wet)
Nag on, nyns on ny glёb – No not we be wet (No, we are not wet)
Ov, glёb ov vy – Yes, I be wet
Os, glёb osta – Yes, you be wet
Yw, glёb yw ev – Yes, he be wet
Yw, glёb yw hy – Yes, she be wet
On, glёb on ny – We be wet
Owgh, glёb owgh we – Yes, you be wet
Yns,glёb yns y – Yes, they be wet
Nag ov, nyns ov vy glёb – No, not I be wet
Nag os, nyns os ta glёb – No. not you be wet
Nag yw, nyns yw ev glёb – No, not he be wet
Nag yw, nyns yw hy glёb – No not she be wet
Nag on, nyns on ny glёb – No, not we be wet
Nag owgh, nyns owgh why glёb – No, not you be wet
Nag yns, nyns yns y glёb – No, not be they wet
Therefore bearing mind these principles the translations for page 15 are as follows;
Den ov vy – I be a man
Benyn osta – You be a woman
Maw yw ev – He be a boy
Mowes yw hy – Girl she be
Den ha benyn on ny – Man and woman we be
Maw ha mowes owgh why – Boy and girl yw be
Mowes ha maw yns hy – Girl and boy be they
If you wished to make these questions you would move ov vy, os ta etc to before Den Benyn etc.
Note you do not use personal pronouns e.g. Me, Te, Ev, Hy, Ny, Why and Y with shotform present Bos .
If you wished to extend your answer to the question above
Os ta glёb?
You could combine the elements by saying;
Nag ov, nyns ov vy glёb, sёgh ov vy
No not I be wet, dry I be