Mutation Rules



Mutations


 


 

Soft

Breathed

Hard

Mixed

1

2

3

4

5

B

V

 

P

F

C,K

G

H

 

 

CH

J

 

 

 

D

Dh

 

T

T

G

-

 

C,K


Gw

W

-

Qw

WH/W

M

V

 

 

F,V

P

B

F

 

 

Qw

GW

Wh

 

 

T

D

Th

 

 

F

V

 

 

 


 


 


First State or Radical


The first state is where the original word remains unmodified in its form


Rules for States 2, 3, 4 and 5


State 2 (The Soft Mutation) - Lenition


Previously we have looked at the soft mutation (State 2). This applies to words following a feminine noun (benyndha “a good woman”), feminine nouns after “an” (the definite article) (an2 venyn “ the woman”) and plural masculine nouns relating to people (tusgref “ strong people”).


In addition we notice that “un” (one) (un2 venyn “one woman”) and “dew” (two) (dewdhen “two men”) also mutate the following word if it is feminine singular  or masculine plural relating to people. 


Some particles also cause a state 2 mutation e.g. (my awelas “I see” or my na2 welas “I do not see”)


Some other words, particularly pronouns “dha” (your) (dha2 jy “your house”) and “y” (his) (y2 gath “his cat”) cause a soft mutation, as do some prepositions such as “a” “of” “war” “dhe” “heb”.


Finally Pajer (four) has the feminine form Peder to be used with feminine nouns, and Mil (1,000) causes a soft mutation


So, in summary State 2 occurs


·        After “an” for feminine singular nouns and masculine plural relating to people ( which makes the “Soft Mutation” the odd man out as gender can make a difference as to whether mutations are applied.


·        After some particles (a, ny, na)


·        After possessive pronouns (dha & y)


·        After important functional words (mainly prepositions)


·        In numbers un2, dew2, and mil2 causing a following mutation


 


State 3 – Aspirate


This mainly happens:


·        After the possessive pronouns ow3 (my), hy3 (hers) and aga3 (theirs)


·        After tri3 and teyr3 (masculine and feminine forms of three)


This mutation is independent of gender of any nouns involved


 


State 4 – Hard 


Mostly you will find this mutation in secondary clauses after mar “if” and the present participle “ow” ( -ing) “owqwil” (doing), “owcolhy” (washing)


This mutation is independent of gender of any nouns involved


 


State 5 – Mixed 


This occurs after “yn” the adverbial particle meaning “-ly” “yn tyen” (completely) “yn teffri” (really), and after the verbal particle “y” (that) “my a2 welas y teth ef” (I saw that he had come)


This mutation is independent of gender of any nouns involved.






 

 

 

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